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Table of Contents

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023

Or

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from to

Commission File No. 001-12593

ATN INTERNATIONAL, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Delaware
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)

47-0728886
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

500 Cummings Center
Beverly, Massachusetts
(Address of principal executive offices)

01915
(Zip Code)

(978619-1300

(Registrant’s telephone

number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of Each Class

Trading Symbol(s)

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, par value $.01 per share

ATNI

The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

(Title of each class)

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports) and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.:

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

Smaller reporting company

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes  No 

The aggregate market value of Common Stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2023, was approximately $394 million based on the closing price of the registrant’s Common Stock as reported on the Nasdaq Global Select Market.

As of March 15, 2024, the registrant had 15,481,207 outstanding shares of Common Stock, $.01 par value.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the registrant’s Definitive Proxy Statement for the 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.

Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

    

Page

Special Note Regarding Forward Looking Statements

1

PART I

1

Item 1.

Business

1

Strategy

1

Overview

2

Human Capital

10

US Federal Regulation

11

US State Regulation

15

US Virgin Islands Regulation

15

Guyana Regulation

16

Bermuda Regulation

16

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

16

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

25

Item 1C.

Cybersecurity

26

Item 2.

Properties

27

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings

28

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

29

Information About Our Executive Officers

30

PART II

31

Item 5.

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

31

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

33

Overview

33

Results of Operations: Years Ended December 31, 2023 and 2022

40

Regulatory and Tax Issues

47

Liquidity and Capital Resources

47

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

58

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

58

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

59

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

59

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures

59

Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures

59

Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting

59

Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting

60

Item 9B.

Other Information

60

Item 9C.

Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions That Prevent Inspections

60

PART III

60

Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

60

Item 11.

Executive Compensation

63

Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

63

Item 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

63

Item 14.

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

63

PART IV

63

Item 15.

Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

63

Item 16.

Form 10-K Summary

68

Signatures

68

Index to Consolidated Financial Statements

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 10-K (this “Report”) contains forward-looking statements relating to, among other matters, our future financial performance and results of operations; the impact of federal support program revenues; expectations regarding future revenue, operating income, EBITDA and capital expenditures; the competitive environment in our key markets, demand for our services and industry trends; expectations regarding litigation; our liquidity; and management’s plans and strategy for the future. These forward-looking statements are based on estimates, projections, beliefs, and assumptions and are not guarantees of future events or results.  Actual future events and results could differ materially from the events and results indicated in these statements as a result of many factors, including, among others, (1) the general performance of our operations, including operating margins, revenues, capital expenditures, and the retention of and future growth of our subscriber base and ARPU; (2) our ability to replace and remove all prohibited mobile telecommunications equipment in our U.S. network on the timeframe and at the cost approved by the FCC; (3) our ability to satisfy the needs and demands of our major carrier customers; (4) government funding program availability and regulation of our businesses, which may impact our revenue, operating costs, and telecommunications licenses; (5) the adequacy and expansion capabilities of our network capacity and customer service system to support our customer growth; (6) our ability to efficiently and cost-effectively upgrade our networks and information technology platforms to address rapid and significant technological changes in the telecommunications industry; (7) continued access to capital and credit markets on terms we deem favorable; (8) our reliance on a limited number of key suppliers and vendors for timely supply of equipment and services relating to our network infrastructure; (9) our ability to continue to cost-effectively service our debt to levels needed to fund our business  given rising interest rates; (10) our estimated plan with respect to material construction projects and the effect such progress will have on our financial results; (11) increased risk of political, geopolitical and other risks and opportunities facing our operations, including those resulting from the persistence of high inflation and other macroeconomic headwinds including increased costs and supply chain disruptions; (12) the loss of, or an inability to recruit skilled personnel in our various jurisdictions, including key members of management; (13) our ability to find investment or acquisition or disposition opportunities that fit our strategic goals; (14) the occurrence of weather events and natural catastrophes and our ability to secure the appropriate level of insurance coverage for these assets; and (15) increased competition.  

Please keep in mind that any forward-looking statement made by us in this Report or elsewhere speaks only as of the date on which we make it. New risks and uncertainties arise from time to time, and it is impossible for us to predict these events or how they may affect us. In any event, these and other important factors may cause actual results to differ materially from those indicated by our forward-looking statements, including those set forth in Item 1A of this Report under the caption “Risk Factors.” We have no duty to, and do not intend to, update or revise the forward-looking statements made by us in this Report after the date of this Report, except as may be required by law.

In this Report, the words “the Company,” “we,” “our,” “ours,” “us” and “ATN” refer to ATN International, Inc. and its subsidiaries. This Report contains trademarks, service marks and trade names that are the property of, or licensed by, ATN and its subsidiaries.

References to dollars ($) refer to US dollars unless otherwise specifically indicated

PART I

ITEM 1.  BUSINESS

Strategy

We believe that access to reliable, high-quality communications services for data, voice and video is fundamental to the economic growth and well-being of every community and should be easy and ubiquitous. Our strategy is informed by our mission which is to digitally empower people and communities so that they can connect with the world and prosper.

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We seek to do so by providing our customers with critical communication technologies that enable rural and remote communities to access reliable, high-speed broadband access through fiber or fiber-like services. These services are essential for allowing these communities to access such things as healthcare, education, and economic opportunities.  

At the start of 2022, we launched a 3-year strategy to deploy capital into fiber and fiber-fed high-speed data solutions to increase our network reach and grow broadband subscribers. The key elements of our strategy are the following:

Glass & Steel™. We have been focused on building and owning advanced digital infrastructure to adapt to meet our customer connectivity needs. This investment period has been focused on advancing our carrier managed services business enabling us to utilize critical infrastructure while transitioning away from legacy wholesale services business.

First-to-Fiber. We pursue a “first-to-fiber” strategy targeting underbuilt or historically underserved markets to “close the digital divide” in our rural or remote markets. We use a variety of technologies to accomplish this while ensuring a viable return on our investment. In addition to deploying our own capital, we utilize federal, state, local or tribal government funding incentives and programs. As of December 31, 2023, we have approximately 768,900 homes passed by our broadband services, 214,400 broadband customers, and 11,655 fiber route miles.

Operational Efficiencies. We are focused on improving operational efficiencies to reduce operating costs and improve operating margins. This includes taking actions to rationalize legacy copper-based networks and optimizing our workforce in accordance with business needs. We see these efforts continuing in both of our segments.

Localized Operations. We believe that strong local management enhances our customer relationships and reduces risk. Our businesses typically have strong local brand identities that help them become leaders in the markets they serve. By maintaining these relationships and leveraging our management experience and operational, technical, and financial expertise with company-wide resources, we can assist these local management teams in further improving operations and growing their businesses.

Capital Allocation Strategy Designed for Long-Term Investor Return. We take a long-term view of our businesses, which we believe increases our chances of success and lowers risk. At the start of 2022, we launched a 3-year strategy to deploy capital in fiber and fiber-fed high-speed data solutions to increase our network reach and grow broadband subscribers. When evaluating investment opportunities, we seek out infrastructure-based services that result in steady, long-term cash flows. The durability of these businesses generates steady operating cash flows over extended periods of time that we seek to re-invest in our existing businesses, reduce our debt levels, and return to our investors through dividends or stock repurchases. We consider new investments, acquisitions and dispositions on a disciplined, return-on-investment basis.

Overview

We provide digital infrastructure and communications services in the United States, primarily in the western U.S., the Navajo Nation and Alaska, and internationally, including Bermuda and the Caribbean region. We focus on smaller markets, many of which are rural or remote, that have a growing demand for infrastructure investments. Through our operating subsidiaries, we primarily provide: (i) fixed and mobile telecommunications connectivity to residential, business and government customers, including a range of high-speed internet and data services, fixed and mobile wireless solutions, and video and voice services; and (ii) carrier communications services, such as communications tower facilities to large business and government customers, and terrestrial and submarine fiber optic transport.

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About the Company

We are a leading provider of digital infrastructure and communications services with a focus on rural and remote markets in the United States, and internationally, including Bermuda and the Caribbean region.

We have developed significant operational expertise and resources that we use to augment our capabilities in our local markets. With this support, our operating subsidiaries are able to improve their quality of service with greater economies of scale and expertise than would typically be available in the size markets we operate in. We provide management, technical, financial, regulatory, and marketing services to our operating subsidiaries and typically receive a management fee calculated as a percentage of their revenues, which is eliminated in consolidation. We also actively evaluate investment opportunities and other strategic transactions, both domestic and international, and generally look for those that we believe fit our profile of telecommunications businesses and have the potential to complement our “First-to-Fiber” and “Glass & Steel™” approach in markets while keeping a focus on generating excess operating cash flows over extended periods of time. We use the cash generated from our operations to maintain an appropriate ratio of debt and cash on hand and to re-invest in organic growth, to fund capital expenditures, to return cash to our stockholders through dividends or stock repurchases, and to make strategic investments or acquisitions.

For further information about our financial segments and geographical information about our operating revenues and assets, see Notes 1 and 14 to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Report.

As of December 31, 2023, we offered the following types of services to our customers:

Fixed Telecommunications Services. We provide fixed data and voice telecommunications services to business and consumer customers. These services include consumer broadband and high-speed data solutions for businesses. For some markets, fixed services also include video services and revenue derived from support under certain government programs.

Carrier Telecommunication Services.  We deliver services to other telecommunications providers including the leasing of critical network infrastructure such as tower and transport facilities, wholesale roaming and long distance voice services, site maintenance and international long-distance services.

Mobile Telecommunications Services. We offer mobile communications services over our wireless networks and related equipment (such as handsets) to both business and consumer customers.

Managed Services. We provide information technology services such as network, application, infrastructure and hosting services to both our business and consumer customers to complement our fixed services in our existing markets.

Through December 31, 2023, we identified two operating segments to manage and review our operations and to facilitate investor presentations of our results. These operating segments are as follows:

US Telecom. In the United States, we offer fixed services, carrier services, and managed services to business customers and consumers in Alaska and the western United States. As of December 31, 2023 we provided mobility services to retail customers in the western United States.

International Telecom.  In our international markets, we offer fixed services, mobility services, carrier services and managed services to customers in Bermuda, the Cayman Islands, Guyana and the US Virgin Islands.

The following chart summarizes the operating activities of our principal subsidiaries, the segments in which we reported our revenue and the markets we served during 2023.

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International Telecom

US Telecom

Services

   

Markets

Tradenames

Services

   

Markets

Tradenames

Mobility Services

Bermuda, Guyana, US Virgin Islands

One, GTT, Viya

Mobility Services

 

United States (rural markets)

Choice, Choice NTUA Wireless

Fixed Services

Bermuda, Cayman Islands, Guyana, US Virgin Islands

One, Logic, GTT, Viya

Fixed Services

United States

Alaska Communications, Commnet, Choice, Choice NTUA Wireless, Sacred Wind Communications, Ethos, Deploycom

Carrier Services

Bermuda, Guyana, US Virgin Islands

One, GTT, Viya

Carrier Services

United States

Alaska Communications, Commnet, Essextel, Sacred Wind Communications

Managed Services

Bermuda, Cayman Islands, US Virgin Islands, Guyana

Fireminds, One, Logic, GTT, Viya, Brava

Managed Services

 

United States

Alaska Communications, Choice

Our principal corporate offices are located at 500 Cummings Center, Suite 2450, Beverly, Massachusetts, 01915. The telephone number at our principal corporate offices is (978) 619-1300.

We file with or submit to the SEC our annual, quarterly, current reports, proxy statements and other information meeting the informational requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (“the Exchange Act”). We make available, free of charge, on our website our proxy statement, annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports and other publicly filed information available as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to the SEC. Our Internet address where these documents and other information can be found is www.atni.com. Information contained on our website is not incorporated by reference into this Report, and you should not consider that information to be part of this Report. Our annual, quarterly, periodic and current reports, proxy statements and other public filings are also available free of charge on the EDGAR Database on the SEC's Internet website at www.sec.gov.

US Telecom Segment

Our US Telecom segment generates fixed services, carrier services, mobility services, and managed services revenues in Alaska and parts of the western United States.

In July 2021, we completed the acquisition of Alaska Communications Systems Group, Inc. (“Alaska Communications”), an Alaska based entity that provides fixed services, carrier services and managed services to primarily carrier and business customers in the State of Alaska and beyond using its statewide and interstate telecommunications network.  At the same time, we entered into an agreement with affiliates and investment funds managed by Freedom 3 Capital, LLC as well as other institutional investors (collectively the “Freedom 3 Investors”) to fund the Alaska Transaction. As a result of the Alaska Transaction, we now own approximately 52% of the common equity of Alaska Communications and control its operations and management.  Beginning on July 22, 2021, the results of the Alaska Transaction are included in our US Telecom segment.

In November 2022, we acquired all of the issued and outstanding stock of Sacred Wind Enterprises, Inc. (“Sacred Wind”), a rural telecommunications provider in New Mexico (the “Sacred Wind Transaction”). As part of the Sacred Wind Transaction, we paid a combination of cash and equity for Sacred Wind, resulting in the Sacred Wind stockholders becoming minority owners in the new business formed by combining Sacred Wind with our existing operations in the western United States, Commnet. Beginning on November 7, 2022, the results of the Sacred Wind Transaction are included in our US Telecom segment.

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Revenues from our US Telecom segment were approximately 51% of our consolidated revenues for fiscal years 2023 and 2022.

Carrier Services

Carrier Services.  In Alaska, we provide wholesale voice and internet connectivity to carrier customers.  In the western United States, we provide wholesale mobile voice and data roaming services in rural markets and wholesale transport services on a smaller scale to national, regional, local and selected international wireless carriers as part of our carrier services as well as tower rental, backhaul and maintenance services. Our largest wholesale networks are located principally in the western United States.

In Alaska, we provide connectivity to our wholesale customers, either through direct sales of wholesale transport over our terrestrial or subsea networks or by entering into transactions whereby we agree to build, host or maintain networks on behalf of another carrier over a contracted term.  

We currently have roaming agreements with each of the three U.S. national wireless network carriers (AT&T, T-Mobile, and Verizon Wireless) along with several other wireless service providers. Other than these agreements with the national carriers, our standard roaming agreements are usually terminable within 90 days. While we continue to provide services pursuant to these roaming agreements, responding to changes in the business environment and customer needs, we have shifted our business focus away from traditional roaming and toward a network infrastructure model of carrier services further described below.

In the western United States, we are increasingly providing network infrastructure services as part of our expanded carrier services, such as tower leasing and transport facilities to our carrier partners, to supplement our historic revenue base. By the end of 2023, we have completed 88% of the build of AT&T’s network for the First Responder Network Authority (“FirstNet”). Ongoing, we are providing equipment and site maintenance and high-capacity transport from these FirstNet cell sites to AT&T’s core network for an initial term ending in 2031. In 2023, we signed our second major Carrier Managed Services (“CMS”) agreement with Verizon to build out a large network to support their customer base. We expect the Verizon build to be substantially complete by the end of 2024.

Sales and Marketing. Our wholesale transport customers are predominately communications carriers such as local exchange carriers, wireless carriers, internet service providers and interstate integrated providers. Our services are mainly sold through direct and inside sales. These business customers choose from our wide range of carrier service offerings to meet their needs.

We believe that our ability to deliver reliable, high capacity backhaul across multiple provider footprints, both from licensed fixed wireless microwave and fiber access solutions, creates value for our customers who are typically unable to scale their rural access capacities as rapidly and successfully as they can in less remote markets. We are investing in the expansion of our regional fiber and network asset footprint, and in enhanced network reliability and route diversity, in the expectation that our carrier customers will have greater demand for higher capacity, higher reliability and lower latency backhaul to support their own investments in 5G network deployments.

Fixed Services

Services. In Alaska, we provide fiber broadband and managed IT services, offering technology and service enabled customer solutions to business and wholesale customers in and out of Alaska. We also provide telecommunication services to consumers in the most populated communities throughout the state. Our facilities-based communications network connects to the contiguous states via our two diverse undersea fiber optic cable systems. We provide high-capacity data networking, internet connectivity, voice communications and IT Services. Networking services include Ethernet and IP routed services as well as switched and dedicated voice services. In addition, we offer other value-added services such as network hosting, managed IT services and long-distance services. Our network is among the most expansive in Alaska

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and forms the foundation of service to our customers. We operate in a largely two-player terrestrial wireline market and our customers are primarily business customers.

In the western United States, we provide fiber and fixed wireless services to business customers such as schools, libraries, mine operators and state and local governments as well as residential customers. Through our Sacred Wind acquisition, our focus in the western United States is to continue to build-out our residential and commercial broadband services.

Network. In Alaska, we provide communications and IT solutions that connect Alaskans, as well as customers in the continental United States, to the world. This is based on an extensive facilities-based wireline telecommunications network in Alaska that we operate. We continually upgrade our network to provide higher levels of performance, higher bandwidth speeds, increased levels of security and additional value-added services to our customers. We operate significant terrestrial and submarine fiber miles which serve as the backbone of our network with a focus on reaching enterprise customers. Our networks are monitored for performance continuously in redundant monitoring centers to provide a high level of reliability and performance. Our network is extensive within Alaska’s urban areas and connects our largest markets, including Anchorage, Fairbanks and Juneau with each other and the contiguous states as well as many rural areas. Residential broadband customers are served in Alaska with copper-based DSL internet access, and in 2022 we began deploying fiber driven broadband service to certain markets. We continue to utilize fixed wireless technology over spectrum to reach even more customers, and we expanded our Multi-Dwelling Unit (“MDU”) offering utilizing fiber or fixed wireless backhaul. 

We own and operate two undersea fiber optic cable systems, AKORN® and Northstar, that provide diverse routing from our Alaskan network to our facilities in Oregon and Washington designed to serve the critical communications requirements of our internal companies and the requirements of our external customers. These facilities provide survivable service to and from Alaska, with key monitoring and disaster recovery capabilities for our customers. We also have several ownership rights on other cables connecting Alaska to the continental United States. Our Network Operations Control Center is located in Hillsboro, Oregon and we have collocation facilities located in Portland, Oregon and Seattle, Washington.  Through our landing stations in Oregon, we also provide an at-the-ready landing point for other large fiber optic cables, and their operators, connecting the U.S. to networks in Asia and other parts of the world. 

Our terrestrial fiber network on the North Slope of Alaska allows us to provide broadband solutions to the oil and gas sector and to advance our sales of managed IT services.  Rural healthcare, education and business customers are served by a satellite earth station network utilizing a combination of Geosynchronous Equatorial Orbit (“GEO”) and low earth orbit (“LEO”) satellite capacity. These satellite services are used to provide Internet and WAN backhaul connectivity to our customers.

In the western United States, we have deployed, and are working to deploy more, carrier-grade fiber optic networks strategically throughout our markets to continue to serve governmental, educational, healthcare, business, consumer and tribal customers in Arizona, Nevada, New Mexico and Utah. We are continuing to expand our capacity offerings with a focus on enhancing our owned and leased transport facilities. Expansion of our network anchored by new fiber deployments is facilitating a long-held vision for reducing reliance on limited capacity microwave backhaul and enabling new wholesale agreements with additional national and regional carriers for both lit and dark fiber services.

Competition. In Alaska, we face strong competition in our markets from larger competitors with substantial resources. For traditional voice and broadband services, we compete with GCI and AT&T on a statewide basis, and smaller providers such as Matanuska Telephone Association, Inc., a co-op owned telephone and internet service provider operating in the Matanuska Valley region of Alaska, on a more local basis.

In the western United States, we experience competitive pressures from ILEC providers such as AT&T, Lumen and Frontier along with their channel partners. Similarly, national fiber providers such as Zayo also offer our customers services and employ vast wholesale channel solutions. Our ability to offer full-service solutions across multiple LEC service areas and very remote sites back to mobile telephone switching offices continues to be market differentiator and a driver for our success.

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Our fixed services in the United States also face additional competitive pressure from the continued development and commercialization of LEO satellite technologies with the capacity for providing high-quality data services to our customers.

Mobility Services

Mobility Services. Historically, we offered mobile services to retail customers in certain rural markets already covered by our wholesale networks in the western United States. As we continue our transition to provide carrier services, we have made the decision to de-emphasize providing retail mobile services. We do not offer mobility services in Alaska.

In July 2022, we were approved to participate in the Federal Communication Commission’s Secure and Trusted Communications Networks Reimbursement Program (the “Replace and Remove Program”), designed to reimburse providers of advanced communications services for reasonable costs incurred in the required removal, replacement, and disposal of communications equipment and services in their networks that has been deemed to pose a national security risk. Pursuant to the Replace and Remove Program, our eligible subsidiaries were initially allocated up to approximately $207 million to replace, remove and securely destroy such communications equipment and services in our networks in the western United States and in the US Virgin Islands, which represents approximately 40% of the funds we requested for such projects. The Replace and Remove Program requires each of these subsidiaries to complete the project no later than one year from receiving its initial disbursement. As of December 31, 2023, we have received approximately $18 million in reimbursements under the Replace and Remove Program. All of our participating subsidiaries must complete their projects in 2024, absent any extensions. See US Federal Regulation – FCC Replace and Remove Program.

Network and Operations. We provide wireless communications network products and services with owned and leased cellular, PCS, BRS, EBS, AWS, and Citizens Broadband Radio Services (“CBRS”) spectrum. Our networks are comprised of base stations and radio transceivers located on owned or leased towers and buildings, telecommunications switches and owned or leased transport facilities. We design and construct our network in a manner intended to provide high-quality service to substantially all types of compatible wireless devices.

The same network that we use for CMS currently provides services to retail customers, and those retail customers benefit from the route diversity, redundant equipment, ring topologies, battery backup and the use of emergency standby power that we have put in place to service our carrier customers. We operate high-capacity, carrier-class digital wireless switching systems that are capable of serving multiple markets through a mobile telephone switching office and centralized equipment used for network and data management that is located in high-availability facilities supported by multiple levels of power and network redundancy. Our systems are designed to incorporate Internet Protocol (IP) packet-based Ethernet technology, which allows for increased data capacity and a more efficient network. Interconnection between the mobile telephone switching office and the cell sites utilizes Ethernet technology over fiber or microwave links for virtually all of our sites.

Competition. Historically, the most significant competitive challenge we face in our U.S. wholesale wireless business is the extent to which our carrier customers choose not to roam on our networks or elect to build or acquire their own infrastructure in a market in which we operate, reducing or eliminating their need for our roaming services in those markets. We are addressing this competitive threat mainly by offering a managed carrier services solution to build and maintain base stations and provide backhaul between our sites and the carrier’s mobile telephone switching office, thereby delivering a native coverage experience to the carrier’s end-customers. While these solutions are similarly vulnerable to competitive overbuild, managed carrier services are offered under longer-term agreements providing us with a predictable source of revenue to support our operating costs.

International Telecom Segment

Our International Telecom segment generates mobility services, fixed services, carrier services, and managed services revenues in Bermuda, the Cayman Islands, Guyana and the US Virgin Islands. Revenues from our International Telecom segment were approximately 49% of our consolidated revenues for fiscal years 2023 and 2022.

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Fixed Services

High-speed data and related services. We offer high-speed broadband services to both residential and business customers in all our International Telecom markets. We provide a number of broadband internet plans with varying speeds to address different customer needs and price requirements in our various markets. As of December 31, 2023, we had approximately 157,000 broadband customers across our international markets and approximately 84% of those customers had access to high-speed networks.

Voice services. We offer fixed voice services that include local exchange, regional and long distance calling and voice messaging services in Bermuda, Guyana, and the US Virgin Islands. With respect to our international long-distance business, we also collect payments from foreign carriers for handling international long-distance calls originating from the foreign carriers’ countries and terminating on our network. We also make payments to foreign carriers for international calls originating on one of our networks and terminating in the foreign carrier’s countries and collect from our subscribers or a local originating carrier a rate that is market-based or set by regulatory tariff.

Video services. We offer video services in Bermuda, the Cayman Islands, and the US Virgin Islands. We have several offerings available to our video customers, including basic and tiered local and cable TV channels grouped into various content categories, such as news, sports and entertainment.

Network. We offer our broadband services over our fiber-optic, copper and coaxial cable networks in our international markets. Where we have made investments to upgrade our network, we are actively working to migrate customers from legacy copper networks to either fiber or fixed wireless networks. All fixed access lines in our network are digitally switched from our switching centers in the US Virgin Islands, Bermuda, Cayman Islands and Guyana. Our switching centers in these markets enable dedicated monitoring of our network designed to ensure quality and reliable service to our customers.

In Bermuda and the US Virgin Islands, we deliver our services via a hybrid fiber coaxial (“HFC”) cable network and via fiber-optic network. In the Cayman Islands and Guyana, we also provide fixed services via fiber-optic network, DSL and FWA. These networks give us expanded internet access coverage within our International Telecom segment. We make efforts to construct our network with materials and routes redundancies that can withstand the climate of the regions, such as high winds.

Our international voice and data networks link with the rest of the world principally through our ownership and investments in undersea fiber-optic cables in the Caribbean and Atlantic regions. These cables are crucial arteries that supply access to communications services for islands and remote markets like the ones in which we operate.

Sales and Marketing. Our fixed services are sold through five main distribution channels: digital, company owned and operated retail/pop-up retail, authorized dealers and agents, direct sales, and inside sales. Business and residential customers are able to purchase any of our stand alone or bundled data, managed services, security services, and voice services through any of our above channels. We are seeking to grow and protect our existing business customer base through a simplified bundling approach that enhances our value proposition and brand position in our markets. During the 2023 year, we invested in a number of sales support resources to support subscriber growth.

Competition. We compete with a limited number of other providers, including Digicel, Liberty Latin America, and individual newer entrants in select markets, with respect to various services. We believe our breadth of services and regional strategy to strengthen and enhance our business offerings, provide us with a strong competitive position and the ability to win and retain an economically viable share of those markets.

Mobility

We provide mobile, data, and voice services to retail and business customers in Bermuda, Guyana and in the US Virgin Islands. We also provide roaming services for many of the largest US providers’ customers visiting these

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locations. As of December 31, 2023, we had approximately 409,000 mobile subscribers in our International Telecom segment.

Products and Services. A significant majority of our customers in our International Telecom segment subscribe to one of our prepaid plans, which require customers to purchase an amount of voice minutes, text messages or data prior to use. A smaller minority of customers subscribe to our postpaid plans that allow customers to select a plan with voice minutes, text messaging, a given amount of data and other features that recur on a monthly basis, and are billed at the end of the service period.

Network and Operations: We offer our mobility services over 4G (LTE) in all of our markets (other than in the Cayman Islands) with emerging 5G in all markets where we offer mobility services. We own and operate base stations on owned and leased sites throughout our international markets. Except for VoLTE, which has components in each market and leverages shared components in Miami and Denver, all of our mobile networks have their core supporting facilities in the home network in the US Virgin Islands, Bermuda and Guyana. Our local Network Operations Centers (“NOCs”) provide dedicated monitoring of our networks and are designed to ensure that we have continuous monitoring of all our wireless and wireline facilities.

The transport networks in all the markets are primarily fiber based with route diversity provided by the deployment of fiber rings where possible and supplemental microwave deployments. The vast majority of the networks are IP based utilizing MPLS for redundancy to provide high availability networks. Standby power is provided by back up battery and generators. As part of our three-year investment strategy, we have been making upgrades designed to enhance the resiliency of our network. We have standardized business continuity and disaster recovery plans and engage in regular reviews and testing of those plans throughout the markets. Connection between these markets and the rest of the world is principally through subsea fiber networks described in our “International Telecom – Fixed Services – Network” section above.

Sales and Marketing. We provide mobile services, mobile connectivity devices and account management through five main distribution channels: digital, Company owned retail/pop-up retail, authorized dealers/agents, direct sales, and inside sales. Business and residential customers are able to purchase any of our services, Prepaid Mobile, Postpaid Mobile, and Mobile Data, through any of the above channels. Customers are also able to purchase devices, and accessories to enhance their services through these same channels. We offer a full suite of mobile devices and add on accessories similar to what is available in most other countries in the world. Our sales channels are strategically located throughout our service areas manned by trained, branded, and supported sales and service representatives.

Handsets and Accessories. We offer a diverse line of wireless devices and accessories designed to meet both the personal and professional needs of our customers. These devices support a variety of wireless connectivity technologies that are deployed across our various markets. Our device assortment includes a wide range of smartphones including those featuring the Android™ and iOS™ operating systems in addition to a full line of feature phones, wireless hot spots and various wireless solutions for small businesses. To complement our phone offerings, we sell a complete range of original equipment manufacturer and after-market accessories that allow our customers to personalize their wireless experience, including phone protection, battery charging solutions and Bluetooth hands-free kits.

Competition. We believe we compete for wireless retail customers in our international markets based on features, price, technology deployed, network coverage (including through roaming arrangements), quality of service and customer care. We compete against Digicel and Liberty Latin America in the Caribbean region, other smaller local providers, and in some markets, against one or more US national operators.

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Human Capital Resources

People and Culture

We know that our employees are our most valuable assets to realize our mission to digitally empower people and communities so they can connect with the world and prosper. We do this through meeting the everyday connectivity needs of rural and historically underserved communities. We developed the values listed below to reflect both our current culture and the values that we strive to embody to attract and maintain key talent. We endeavor to implement these values every day through employee engagement events, regular communication on company goals and milestones, and foster a connected and empowered workplace.

ATN Values

Description

Commitment

Operate for the Long-Term

Respect

Diversity of Viewpoint

Excellence

Smart and Determined Work

Accountability

Do What You Say

Thoughtfulness

Caring Behavior

Empowerment

Leaders at Every Level

ATN Workforce Overview

As of December 31, 2023, we had approximately 2,300 employees, of whom approximately 1,000 were employed in the United States (including the US Virgin Islands), and approximately 1,300 were employed by our international subsidiaries. At the holding company level, we employ our executive management team and staff. Approximately 24% of our total employee population are covered by contracts with various unions. Employees represented by unions are located in Alaska and all our international markets except for the Cayman Islands. Our collective bargaining agreement with the union in our US Virgin Islands operations expires in 2024 and we will be negotiating a new agreement. As of the end of 2023, we believe we have a good relationship with our unions.

Commitment to Local Management and Diversity of Viewpoint

We seek engaged managers who have strong values, integrity, knowledge of our market and business model, and have respect for differing viewpoints. We strive to create a diverse working environment that creates a greater understanding of our differences and makes us a stronger company.

We rely heavily on local management teams to run our subsidiary operating units. Many of the markets in which we operate are small and remote, and in some cases are subject to government restrictions on granting work visas, all of which makes it difficult to attract and retain talented and qualified managers and staff in those markets.

Employee Engagement and Development

Together with our subsidiaries, we are working hard to improve the way technology is used in the diverse communities we serve. We believe having management and staff that are as diverse as the communities in which they operate is crucial to our success and to our ability to have a positive impact on those communities. We celebrate different perspectives and backgrounds because we believe they help us to have a stronger, more creative, and more successful workplace.

We are proud to offer benefits to our employees that promote wellness and personal care, a safe work environment and career growth opportunities. We regularly utilize performance development tools for our employees, which are focused on driving engagement and high performance through frequent communications throughout the year.

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Our annual employee engagement survey provides employees with the opportunity to share confidential feedback on what they believe has been working well and where they believe we can improve to better support our employees. Our focus areas for engagement include skills development and manager performance. Anonymous, aggregated results are shared with employees, and the results are used to drive our long-term action plans for how we can seek to continue to improve our work culture.

US Federal Regulation

At the federal level in the United States, we are regulated in large part by the FCC.  Our operations in the United States are subject to the Communications Act of 1934, as amended, including the Telecommunications Act of 1996 (“Communications Act”), and the FCC’s implementing regulations.

The FCC provides regulations that require certain disclosures or operational measures for both our fixed and wireless services. To date, that includes, but is not limited to:

Broadband Labels.  The FCC requires broadband service providers to display “nutrition labels” at the point of sale, that disclose information about broadband prices, introductory rates, data allowances, broadband speeds, and latency.
Digital Discrimination. In November 2023, the FCC adopted rules prohibiting policies or practices that are not justified by genuine issues of technical or economic feasibility and that differentially impact consumers’ access to broadband Internet access service based on income level, race, ethnicity, color, religion, or national origin or are intended to have such differential impact.
Robocalls.  The FCC has taken a series of steps to limit unwanted and illegal telephone calls, including restricting the use of automatic telephone dialing systems and artificial or prerecorded voice messages, requiring the implementation of STIR/SHAKEN caller ID authentication framework in the Internet Protocol (“IP”) portions of provider networks, establishing the Do-Not-Call registry in coordination with the Federal Trade Commission, and permitting voice service providers to block calls in certain circumstances.
Telecommunications Privacy Regulations. We are subject to federal regulations relating to privacy and data security that impact all parts of our business.
National Suicide Prevention Lifeline. The FCC requires that providers transmit all 988 calls to the toll free access number for the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline.
CALEA. We are required to provide law enforcement agencies with capacity and technical capabilities to support lawful wiretaps pursuant to the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act.

Wireless Services

The FCC regulates, among other things, the licensed and unlicensed use of radio spectrum; the ownership, lease, transfer of control, and assignment of wireless licenses; the ongoing technical, operational, and service requirements applicable to such licenses; the timing, nature, and scope of network construction; the provision of certain services, such as enhanced 911 (“E-911”); and the interconnection of communications networks in the United States. Although some of these regulations apply to both our services to retail customers and our wholesale services to wireless carriers, many apply only to our retail services. As we reduce the markets in which we provide retail wireless services, the significance to our business of regulatory obligations applicable only to our retail services will diminish.

Spectrum Licenses. We provide our wireless services pursuant to various commercial mobile radio services (“CMRS”) licenses issued by the FCC. Some of these licenses are site-based while others cover specified geographic

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market areas. The specific radio frequencies, the authorized spectrum amounts, and certain of the technical and service rules vary depending on the licensed service.

In addition to CMRS licenses, our wireless business relies on common carrier and non-common carrier fixed point-to-point microwave licenses issued by the FCC.

Most of our license grants are for a period of ten years and are renewable upon application to the FCC. License renewal applications may be denied if the FCC determines, after appropriate notice and hearing, that renewal would not serve the public interest, convenience, or necessity.  Where a license renewal is denied, the licensee loses authority to operate on the spectrum in those areas previously authorized by the license. While our license renewal applications have been regularly granted by the FCC in the past, there can be no assurance that all of our licenses will be renewed in the future. The FCC also may deny license applications and, in extreme cases, revoke licenses if it finds that an entity lacks the requisite qualifications to be a licensee. To our knowledge, there are no circumstances that would warrant such a finding by the FCC against us.

The FCC conditions spectrum licenses on the satisfaction of certain obligations to construct networks covering a specified geographic area or population by specific dates. These obligations vary depending on the licensed service. Failure to satisfy an applicable construction requirement can result in the assessment of fines and forfeitures by the FCC, a reduced license term, or automatic license cancellation. We are substantially in compliance with the applicable construction requirements that have arisen for the licenses we currently hold and expect to meet our future construction requirements as well.

Public Interest and Safety Obligations. The Communications Act and the FCC’s rules impose additional requirements upon wireless service providers. A failure to meet or maintain compliance with the Communications Act and/or the FCC’s rules may subject us to fines, forfeitures, penalties, or other sanctions. To our knowledge, we comply in all material respects with applicable FCC technical and reporting requirements.

The radio systems towers that we own and lease are subject to Federal Aviation Administration and FCC regulations that govern the location, marking, lighting, and construction of towers and are subject to the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act, National Historic Preservation Act, and other environmental statutes enforced by the FCC. In addition, the FCC has also adopted guidelines and methods for evaluating human exposure to emissions of radiofrequency radiation from radio equipment. To our knowledge, all of our radio systems on towers that we own or lease comply in all material respects with these requirements, guidelines, and methods.

The FCC has adopted requirements for CMRS providers to promote access to reliable 911, hearing aid compatible devices, emergency alerting, and first responder communications. For example, wireless providers are obligated to transmit all 911 calls to a public safety answering point, as well as deploy and use increasingly accurate location information technologies. Federal law limits our liability for uncompleted 911 calls to a degree commensurate with wireline carriers in our markets. The FCC also has adopted obligations on wireless providers related to network reliability and resiliency and disaster management. Further, new FCC rules require CMRS providers to provide reasonable roaming during disasters to other providers’ subscribers when technically feasible and establish mutual aid arrangements with other providers, among other obligations. In addition, wireless providers must timely inform the FCC and local public safety entities about outages of network services that meet certain thresholds. Some of our subsidiaries have voluntarily elected to transmit Wireless Emergency Alerts from federal, state, and local emergency alert originators and, as a result, are required to meet certain technical and operational obligations established by the FCC. To our knowledge, we comply with such obligations currently applicable to our operations, and we devote resources necessary to meet these obligations and maintain network services.

We are obligated to pay certain annual regulatory fees and assessments to support FCC wireless industry regulation, as well as fees supporting federal universal service programs, number portability, regional database costs, centralized telephone numbering administration, telecommunications relay service for people who are deaf or hard of hearing, and application filing fees. These fees are subject to periodic change by the FCC and the manner in which carriers may recoup these fees from customers is subject to various restrictions. To our knowledge, we comply in all material respects with applicable FCC regulatory fee and assessment requirements.

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Fixed Services

The FCC generally exercises jurisdiction over the interstate and international fixed wireline telecommunications services that we provide as a regulated common carrier. The Communications Act and regulations promulgated thereunder require, among other things, that we offer regulated interstate telecommunications common carrier services at just, reasonable, and non-discriminatory rates and terms. The Communications Act also requires us to offer competing carriers interconnection and non-discriminatory access to certain facilities and services designated as essential for local competition.

We are subject to competitive market forces, as well as rate-of-return regulation for intrastate services that originate and terminate in Alaska and the US Virgin Islands and price-cap rate regulation for interstate services in Alaska and the US Virgin Islands regulated by the FCC. Because we face competition, we may not be able to charge the maximum permitted rates under price-cap regulation or realize the authorized intrastate rate of return. A broader range of data and information services are offered by our unregulated affiliates or as unregulated services by our regulated companies. 

The FCC regulates the prices that we charge for the use of our local telephone facilities in originating or terminating interstate calls. In Alaska and the US Virgin Islands, rates for interstate telecommunications services we offer are determined using price cap regulation, under which the rates vary from year to year based on mathematical formulae, and not based on changes to our costs, including both inter-carrier rates and retail end user rates. The FCC also regulates rates for “business data services,” which are those circuit-switched or packet-switched services that offer dedicated point-to-point transmission of data at certain guaranteed speeds and service levels using high-capacity connections, including special access services, but the FCC has generally forborne from regulating our rates for these services, except on certain routes that the FCC believes lack sufficient competition.

The Communications Act encourages competition in local telecommunications markets by removing barriers to market entry and imposing on non-rural incumbent local exchange carriers (“ILECs”) various requirements related to, among other things, interconnection, access to unbundled network elements, co-location, access to poles, ducts, conduits, and rights of way, wholesale and resale obligations, and telephone number portability. Our ILEC operations in the US Virgin Islands through Viya are exempt from most such federal requirements pursuant to a rural exemption.

While, to date, the FCC has declined to classify interconnected voice-over Internet Protocol (“VoIP”) service as a telecommunications service or information service, it has imposed a number of consumer protection and public safety obligations on interconnected VoIP providers, relying in large part on its general ancillary jurisdiction powers. To the extent that we provide interconnected VoIP service, we are subject to a number of these obligations, and, to our knowledge, we comply in all material respects with applicable VoIP requirements.

Universal Service Support and Contributions

In general, all telecommunications providers are obligated to contribute to the Universal Service Fund (“USF”), which is used to promote the availability of qualifying telecommunications and broadband service to low-income households, households located in rural and high-cost areas, and to schools, libraries, and rural health care providers. We contribute to the USF and also receive various forms of USF support.  We are subject to audit by the Universal Service Administrative Company (“USAC”) with respect to our federal contributions and our receipts of universal service funding. To our knowledge, we comply in all material respects with applicable federal and state USF assessment and support requirements.

USF High-Cost Support. The FCC’s high-cost USF (or alternatives to former high cost USF) mechanisms promote the deployment and operation of voice and broadband networks in areas where high costs would otherwise undermine the availability of service to consumers, including in rural, insular, and remote areas. High-cost support mechanisms generally include explicit conditions to deploy broadband to new locations and provide service meeting specified standards.

We receive several forms of high-cost support, including but not limited to, as follows:

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We receive state USF support in Alaska, which for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023 was approximately $2.5 million;
We receive approximately $2.3 million annually in the western United States through December 31, 2031 as part of the Rural Digital Opportunity Fund Phase I (“RDOF”) auction, subject to the requirement to deploy voice and broadband service to areas covered by our winning bids within six years and to provide service in those areas for ten years;
We receive approximately $5.5 million annually in the US Virgin Islands through December 31, 2025, subject to the requirement to enhance network resiliency and operations in those markets; and
As part of the Enhanced Alternative Connect America Model funding available to our operations in the western United States, we are estimated to receive approximately $118 million over the next 15 years, through 2038, with approximately $9 million annually in the initial 6-year period before a gradual step down in funds. This funding is subject to a requirement to deploy voice and broadband service at speeds of 100/20 Mbps to all required locations by the end of calendar year 2028.

As of December 31, 2023, we believe we are in compliance with all of our construction and service obligations under these programs and we currently expect to comply in all material respects with our deployment and service requirements associated with such funding. If we fail to meet these obligations or require substantial additional capital expenditures to meet the obligations in a timely manner, our revenue, results of operations and liquidity may be materially adversely impacted. In 2023, the FCC initiated a proceeding to consider the future of high-cost support in Alaska. Some of the proposals in that proceeding could negatively affect Alaska Communications’ support, including proposals to eliminate support in areas served by an unsubsidized competitor or to require incumbent providers to compete for the receipt of support. At this time, we cannot predict the outcome of this proceeding. 

Rural Health Care Universal Service Support Program. The FCC’s Rural Health Care Universal Service Support Mechanism (“RHC program”) provides funding to help make broadband telecommunications and Internet access services provided by us and other service providers affordable for eligible rural health care providers. We believe we are in compliance with the current RHC program rules. Nonetheless, the FCC recently sought comment on proposed changes to RHC program rules. We may be required to make changes to our rates should the FCC amend the program rules which may impact our revenue, results of operations, and liquidity.

Subsidies for Low-Income Customers. The FCC’s Lifeline support mechanism provides a subsidy to eligible low-income consumers against the cost of voice services, as well as broadband in CAF II locations and beginning January 1, 2022, the FCC established the Affordable Connectivity Program (“ACP”), which provides eligible low-income consumers and students with a monthly subsidy for the purchase of broadband Internet access service from service providers that elected to participate in the program, which we did. However, in January 2024, the FCC announced that, unless Congress authorizes additional funding, the ACP program will end in the second quarter of 2024, and directed ACP providers, including us, to start informing customers of the program’s termination in February 2024. Although we believe that we comply with the rules of these subsidy programs, we cannot predict whether the FCC will further modify its approach to using USF support to subsidize voice and broadband service to low-income consumers.

E-Rate. We have provided telecommunications services, broadband Internet access services, and internal connections supported by the FCC’s Schools and Libraries Universal Service Support Mechanism (“E-rate”) for many years. E-rate support provides an invaluable means by which elementary and secondary schools can afford those services, particularly in rural and remote, high-cost areas. Historically, E-rate has primarily supported services that connect eligible school buildings. To our knowledge, we comply with applicable E-Rate requirements.

FCC Replace and Remove Program

The FCC prohibits the use of USF support to purchase or obtain any equipment or services produced or provided by certain companies determined to pose an unacceptable risk to US national security. The FCC also required eligible

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telecommunications carriers receiving USF support to replace and remove from their networks covered equipment and services and established the Replace and Remove program to allow certain providers to apply for reimbursement of certain costs reasonably incurred to permanently remove, replace, and dispose of such equipment and services.

Our participating operating subsidiaries, Commnet, NTUA Wireless, and Viya, have covered equipment or services in their networks and have received funding to participate in the Replace and Remove Program In July 2022, the FCC approved our eligible subsidiaries’ participation in the program but also announced that the total amount of approved costs appropriated by Congress amounted to only 40% of the total amount for which reimbursement was sought by all applicants and accordingly, awarded us only with approximately 40% of the total costs we requested for participation in and completion of the program. Congress is considering appropriating additional funding to meet the remaining 60% of the demand for reimbursement, but we cannot predict whether or when such additional funding will be allocated, or how much, if any, will be allocated.

The related funding appropriated by Congress amounted to only 40% of the total amount and accordingly, awarded us only with approximately 40% of the total costs we requested for participation in and completion of the program. Companies that were awarded funding must complete the removal, replacement, and disposal of Covered List equipment and services in their networks within a year of their initial funding disbursements. All of our participating subsidiaries have submitted requests for reimbursement and received their initial disbursements and are currently within their  one-year project completion deadlines. For a discussion of our risks in completing the project on the timeline and currently allocated budget, please see “We are reliant on government funding to execute on the FCC’s Replace and Remove program” in our Risk Factors.

Video Services

Video services systems are regulated by the FCC under the Communications Act. We provide video services in the US Virgin Islands. The FCC regulates our programming selection through local broadcast TV station mandatory carriage obligations, constraints on our retransmission consent negotiations with local broadcast TV stations, and limited regulation of our carriage negotiations with cable programming networks. The FCC and federal laws also impose rules governing, among other things, leased cable set-top boxes, our ability to collect and disclose subscribers’ personally identifiable information, access to inside wiring in multiple dwelling units, cable pole attachments, customer service and technical standards, and disability access requirements. Failure to comply with these regulations could subject us to penalties. To our knowledge, we comply in all material respects with currently applicable FCC video services requirements.

US State and Territorial Regulation

In addition to FCC regulation, we are subject to state and local regulation, such as environmental, zoning, land use and other regulations.

Alaska Regulation

Providers of intrastate wireline telecommunication services in Alaska are required to obtain a certificate of public convenience and necessity from the Regulatory Commission of Alaska (the “RCA”), which Alaska Communications holds. The RCA also adopts and administers various regulatory requirements applicable to certificate holders, although the scope of such regulations was materially reduced in 2019. We believe that Alaska Communications complies with these RCA requirements.

US Virgin Islands Regulation

Our wireline (i.e., voice, broadband internet, and cable video) operations in the US Virgin Islands are subject to the US Virgin Islands Public Utilities Code, pursuant to which the Virgin Islands Public Service Commission (“PSC”) regulates certain telecommunications and cable TV services that Viya provides in the US Virgin Islands.

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Our video, internet, and wireless companies in the US Virgin Islands also receive tax benefits as qualifying participants in the US Virgin Islands’ Research & Technology Park (“RTPark”) program. These benefits resulted in tax exemptions of approximately $2.9 million during the year ended December 31, 2023. In order to qualify, we are required to pay monthly management fees of 0.4% of tenant company revenue, make annual charitable contributions to the University of the Virgin Islands, purchase products and services locally when feasible and provide in-kind services to RTPark.

Guyana Regulation

Our subsidiary, GTT Inc. (“GTT”), in which we hold an 80% interest, is subject to regulation in Guyana under the provisions of GTT’s License from the Government of Guyana, the Guyana Public Utilities Commission Act of 2016 as amended (or “PUC Law”) and the Guyana Telecommunications Act of 2016 (or “Telecommunications Law”). The Public Utilities Commission of Guyana (or “PUC”) is an independent statutory body with the principal responsibility for regulating telecommunications rates and services in Guyana. The Ministry of Telecommunications, of the Government of Guyana, has statutory authority over telecommunications licensing and related issues. The Telecommunications Agency (or “TA”) advises and makes recommendations to the Minister of Telecommunications, implements policy and has principal responsibility for operating licenses and frequency authorizations.

Licenses. GTT provides domestic fixed wireline and mobile as well as international voice and data services in Guyana pursuant to licenses from the Government of Guyana granting GTT the right to provide a variety of domestic fixed wireline and mobile and international voice and data services. These licenses were issued in October 2020.

On October 5, 2020, the Prime Minister of Guyana formally implemented telecommunications legislation previously passed by the Guyana Parliament in 2016 that introduces material changes to many features of Guyana’s existing telecommunications regulatory regime with the intention of creating a more competitive market. The regulations include new requirements for the market as a whole, that impact our operations, administrative reporting and services.  There can be no assurance that these regulations will be administered in such a way that does not lead to adverse impacts for GTT’s operational and financial performance.

Bermuda Regulation

The Regulatory Authority of Bermuda (the “RA”) is the primary regulator of our operations in Bermuda. The relevant legislation is the Regulatory Authority Act 2011 and the Electronic Communications Act 2011. Pursuant to these statutes, the RA is responsible for regulating all electronic communications services in Bermuda, including the broadband, mobile and video services we offer. The statutory framework provides the RA powers in respect of licensing, consumer protections, ex post competition issues, and the identification and remedying of significant market power concerns.

ITEM 1A.  RISK FACTORS

In addition to the other information contained in, or incorporated by reference into, this Report, you should carefully consider the risks described below that could materially affect our business, financial condition, or future results. These risks are not the only risks facing us. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently believe are immaterial also may materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and/or results of operations.

Operational Risks

Cybersecurity breaches could have an adverse effect on our business.

We are highly dependent on our information technology (“IT”) systems for the operation of our network, our facilities, delivery of services to our customers and the compilation of our financial results. Failure of these IT systems, through cyberattacks, breaches of security, human error or otherwise, may cause disruptions to our operations. There can

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be no assurance that we will be able to successfully prevent a material security breach stemming from future cyberattacks or avoid major outages caused by such an attack or breach. Our inability to operate our network, facilities and back-office systems as a result of such events, even for a limited period of time, may result in significant expenses and impact the timely and accurate delivery of our services or other information. There has been an increase in ransomware attacks in recent years. Telecommunications providers, including vendors to providers, are increasingly being targeted by cyber criminals. These attacks are not always seeking data about their own business, but access to the data of market participants in potentially more lucrative industries. Disruptions in our networks and the unavailability of our services or our inability to efficiently and effectively complete necessary technology or systems upgrades, or conversions could lead to a loss of customers, damage to our reputation and violation of the terms of our licenses and contracts with customers. Additionally, breaches of security may lead to unauthorized access to our customer or employee information processed and stored in, and transmitted through, our IT systems. We may be required to expend significant additional resources to modify our protective measures or to investigate and remediate vulnerabilities or other exposures arising from operational and security risks, including notification under data privacy laws and regulations, and we may be subject to litigation, regulatory penalties and financial losses. These failures could also lead to significant negative publicity.

We are reliant on government funding to execute on the FCC’s Replace and Remove program.

The FCC’s governmental restrictions on the procurement of equipment from certain vendors has resulted in a costly network replacement build in our western United States operations that is funded in part by the FCC’s Replace and Remove Program. In July 2022, the FCC approved our eligible subsidiaries’ participation in the program but also announced that the total amount of approved costs for which reimbursement was sought by all applicants was far in excess of the amount appropriated by Congress. Because demand for program support exceeded available funding, the FCC was required by statute to implement a prioritization scheme and allocate funding on an equal but prorated basis. Accordingly, per its rules, the FCC developed a pro-rata allocation factor of approximately 40%.  See US Federal Regulation – FCC Replace and Remove Program.

Congress is considering appropriating additional funding to meet the total demand for reimbursement, but we cannot predict whether or when such additional funding will be allocated, or how much, if any, will be allocated. Thus, we cannot predict whether there will be sufficient available funding to reimburse our subsidiaries for all of their approved costs in this context. Any shortfall in available funding could have an adverse impact on our ability to replace, remove, and dispose of covered equipment in satisfaction of our regulatory obligations, on our cash flows, or on our results of operations. Once funds are allocated, recipients can then draw down funds upon proof of actual expenses incurred by filing a request for the reimbursement of specific expenses. We cannot predict whether and to what extent the FCC or the administrator on which it relies to administer the reimbursement program will approve our subsidiaries’ requests for the specific reimbursement of costs. If we are not successful in receiving the amount of funds that is necessary to remove, replace, and dispose of equipment from restricted vendors or are unable to complete the removal, replacement, and disposal within the required timeframes, or have underestimated the cost of replacement, it could adversely impact our ability to operate, maintain or expand our domestic network infrastructure.

Companies that were awarded funding must complete the removal, replacement, and disposal of Covered List equipment and services in their networks within a year of their initial funding disbursements. All of our participating subsidiaries one-year project completion deadlines are in 2024. However, delays due to factors such as supply-chain issues, delayed approval of reimbursement requests, the underfunding of the program, and other external circumstances could prevent our subsidiaries from meeting these timelines. Under the FCC’s rules, program participants can seek extensions of their deadlines, or the FCC can grant a blanket extension for all participants. Because of the prevalence of Chinese vendor equipment in our US network, we believe meeting this time based requirement will be difficult without additional time to complete, especially if the FCC is unable to lessen or eliminate the shortfall in reimbursement funding.

We cannot predict whether and to what extent the fund administrator will approve our subsidiaries’ requests for the specific reimbursement of costs, whether we will obtain additional necessary extensions, or whether we can complete our participation in the program within the timelines set by the FCC.

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Finally, there is a risk that the FCC may continue to enumerate requirements or change stated rules. For example, if the FCC were to add a new company to the Covered List of foreign companies whose telecommunications equipment are subject to usage restrictions that has provided a significant amount of equipment to our subsidiaries, we cannot predict how our business will be impacted or what sort of adverse consequences may result.

Inclement weather, changes in meteorological conditions and other natural disasters may materially disrupt our operations.

Many of the areas in which we operate have experienced severe weather conditions including hurricanes, tornadoes, blizzards, fires, damaging storms, floods and earthquakes. Such events may materially disrupt and adversely affect our business operations. Major hurricanes have hit the US Virgin Islands, Bermuda, and Cayman several times in the past decade, causing damage to our network and to the infrastructure on the islands. Guyana and Cayman have each suffered from severe rains and flooding in the past as well. In Alaska, our operations face earthquake, volcanic, fire and winter storm risk. These types of events can also cause major disruption and harm to the communities and markets we serve and where our employees live. This risk to our company is heightened by the fact that many of our service areas have limited emergency response assets and may be difficult to reach in an emergency situation which may delay service restoration in a critical time following a natural disaster or other disruptive event. In addition, the impacts of climate change may exacerbate the risk of significant damage in the areas in which we operate if the frequency or duration of more intense weather events increase. We cannot be sure that these types of events will not have an impact in the future or that we can procure insurance coverage against these types of severe weather and geological events under reasonable business terms and conditions, or that any insurance coverage we are able to maintain will fully fund the replacement of assets and adequately compensate us for all damage and economic losses resulting from natural catastrophes. In addition, it may take significant time to return to pre-disaster levels following any such meteorological or geological event. If we are unable to restore service on a timely and cost-effective basis, it could harm our reputation and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations through continued loss of revenue and customer attrition to our competitors.

Our inability to recruit and retain experienced management and technical personnel could adversely affect our results of operations and our ability to maintain effective internal controls.

The success of our business depends on the ability of our executive officers and the officers of our operating units to develop and execute on our business plan, and to identify and pursue new opportunities and product innovations, as well as on our ability to attract and retain these officers and other highly qualified technical and management personnel. We believe that there is, and will continue to be, strong competition for qualified personnel in the communications industry and in our markets and we cannot be certain that we will be able to attract and retain the personnel necessary for the development of our business. The shift to remote work, precipitated by the COVID-19 pandemic, seems to have exacerbated that competition and may continue to impact the labor pool and labor costs in many of our markets. We have found that remote work creates added challenges and costs with respect to employee engagement and productivity. Nonetheless, as labor demands in certain key markets exceed the supply of eligible workers, we may increasingly need to rely on remote workers to fill open positions.

We rely heavily on local management to run our operating units. Many of the markets in which we operate are small and remote, and in some cases are subject to government restrictions on granting work visas, which could make it difficult for us to attract and retain talented and qualified managers and staff in those markets. The loss of key personnel or the failure to attract or retain personnel with the sophistication to run complicated communications equipment, networks and systems could have a material adverse effect on our ability to maintain effective internal controls, and on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Given the current labor economy, it may become increasingly difficult to find the right people to fill management roles. We do not currently maintain “key person” life insurance on any of our key employees and none of the executives at our parent company have executed employment agreements requiring a specified time period of service.

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We are increasingly reliant on government funding which brings compliance obligations and a risk that a change in federal or state funding could materially and adversely impact the financial position and results of operations of certain of our subsidiaries.

We are increasingly focused on winning or obtaining government awards and funding. In the western United States, we are using government awards to both enable our expanded carrier service initiative and grow the footprint of our network. We receive federal and state universal service revenues to support our wireline operations in high-cost areas in Alaska, the US Virgin Islands, and in the western United States. We receive US government funding and awards from numerous other sources, including: ACP, E-rate, EACAM, RHC program, Tribal Broadband Connectivity, CAF II, and RDOF. Each government award or support imposes explicit conditions regarding operational requirements, timelines and deployment of service, and required reporting, each that require strict compliance. Administrative and operational expertise is required to meet the growing number of government award programs that we have been awarded. If we are unable to meet the terms of the awards, our funding may be subject to claw back in addition to other consequences.  There can be no assurance that we will continue to meet our myriad of government obligations in a capital-efficient manner. For example, under the USF, if we fail to meet our buildout and service obligations, or if we require substantial additional capital expenditures in order to meet the obligations under the timeline required, or if the relevant government agencies reduce funding availability, our revenue, results of operations, and liquidity may be materially adversely impacted. Finally, there is uncertainty regarding any future levels of these revenues, as the government may choose to decrease or cease funding certain programs. For example, the ACP program is currently slated to end in the second quarter of 2024. ACP funding subsidizes the cost of our broadband services for low-income consumers, so some of our customers may be unable to afford services after the end of this program and we may lose subscribers in our US markets. There can be no assurance that government support will continue at its current levels and decreases or loss in certain programs may have a materially adverse impact on our revenues.  

Network outages could have an adverse effect on our business.

Network outages could have a material adverse effect on our business and can be caused by a myriad of incidents, including aging or faulty infrastructure, natural disasters, and third party outages, such as power loss. Risk for network outages increases with increased reliance on cloud-storage providers, which may themselves be subject to cybersecurity breaches, capacity limitations, software defects and more. In addition, much of our underlying physical infrastructure (particularly in Guyana and Alaska), including buildings, fleet vehicles and related systems and equipment, has been in service for an extended period of time. We may not be able to adequately fund the maintenance and replacement of this infrastructure on a basis timely enough to avoid material outages, or accurately predict equipment failure rates, or be able to locate replacement parts or spares to repair existing equipment due to its age. Any network outage could negatively impact our operations, including the provision of service to our customers, and could result in adverse effects to our financial condition and reputation. These outages could also lead to significant negative publicity.

We rely on a limited number of key suppliers and vendors for the timely supply of handsets, accessories, equipment and services relating to our network or facility infrastructure. Changes in import tax policy or trade relations, interruptions in our supply chain or increased commodity or supply chain costs could adversely affect our results of operations.

Like other companies globally, we continued to face major supply chain disruptions across our business in early 2023, which led to increased costs and delays. While supply chain reliability improved during 2023, we continue to monitor other supply chain risks such as inflationary trends, availability of materials and services based on the subsidized dollars available for telecommunications companies in the US.  We depend on a limited number of suppliers for equipment and services relating to our network infrastructure, mobile handset lineup, and our back-office IT systems infrastructure. If these suppliers experience interruptions or other problems delivering equipment to us on a timely basis, our subscriber or revenue growth and operating results could suffer significantly. In addition, our retail wireless businesses depend on access to compelling handset devices at reasonable prices on the primary and secondary markets. The size of our business relative to many of our competitors puts us at a disadvantage in terms of whether we will get access to the newest technologies at the same time as our competitors, as well as a financial disadvantage in terms of the ability to achieve economies of scale and receive commensurate discounts that may be available to our competitors. Our inability to provide a competitive retail

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device lineup or to acquire network technology on a cost effective basis could materially impact our ability to attract new customers and retain existing customers.

A large portion of our equipment is sourced, directly or indirectly, from outside the United States, and major changes in tax policy or trade relations, such as the disallowance of tax deductions for imported products or the imposition of additional tariffs or duties on imported products, could also adversely affect our business, results of operations, effective income tax rate, liquidity and net income. The increase in geopolitical tensions only heightens the risk of supply chain shortages and delays, especially with respect to sourcing equipment from Europe or the Middle East.

Strategic Risks

Increased competition may adversely affect growth, require increased capital expenditures, result in the loss of existing customers and decrease our revenues.

Over the last decade, an increase in competition in many areas of the telecommunications industry has contributed to a decline in prices for communication services, including mobile wireless services, local and long-distance telephone service and data services.

Competition in the markets in which we operate has increased in recent years due to a number of governmental and economic factors. For instance, several of our competitors are launching 5G services, which is causing us to undertake an analysis as to how much capital is needed to stay competitive.

Increased competition, whether from new entrants or increased capital investment by our competitors in their existing networks, will make it more difficult for us to attract and retain customers in our small markets, which could result in lower revenue and cash flow from operating activities.

We may not be able to timely and effectively execute on several key initiatives across multiple jurisdictions.

Major business initiatives are underway with respect to improvement in mobile and other retail sales in all markets, digitization of internal processes to allow for quicker response time to customer requirements, modernization of existing internal processes in select markets and revising the strategy of some of our US Telecom businesses to develop additional revenue streams, including the substantial construction and support undertakings of the FirstNet project and the Replace and Remove program. Each of these requires significant oversight from senior management to aid in-market teams, and many of these projects are underway simultaneously in different locations. Execution on multiple simultaneous and transformational initiatives will require in-depth management attention in multiple jurisdictions to capitalize on growth in the US Virgin Islands, economic growth in Guyana, and the ongoing shift in business focus in US Telecom.

Rapid and significant technological changes in the telecommunications industry may adversely affect us.

Our industry faces rapid and significant changes in technology that may directly impact our business, including the introduction of new telecom delivery platforms. For example, Starlink has started offering direct-to-consumer products which in some locations in our markets is a direct competitive alternative to our new fiber offerings in certain locations, such as in Alaska and Guyana. Given the high capital investments we have already made in the new fiber offerings, this competition may adversely impact our anticipated return on investment.  

For us to keep pace with these technological changes and remain competitive, at a minimum we must continue to make capital expenditures to add to our networks’ capacity, coverage and technical capability. We cannot predict the effect of technological changes on our business. Alternative or new technologies may be developed that provide communications services superior to those available from us, which may adversely affect our business. Failure to provide these services or to upgrade to new technologies on a timely basis and at an acceptable cost, or to secure any necessary regulatory approvals

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to roll out such new technologies on a timely basis all could have a material adverse effect on our ability to compete with carriers in our markets.

We may have difficulty funding multiple opportunities across our businesses.

Historically, we have funded our capital expenditures and transactional matters from a combination of cash on hand, cash from operations, and limited incurrence of debt. With our strategy of increased and focused capital expenditures across our business, and the acquisitions of Alaska Communications and Sacred Wind, over the last three years we have substantially decreased our cash reserves and increased our leverage on a consolidated basis.

Beginning in 2022, we invested in higher-than-average capital expenditures to support our strategies of “First-to-Fiber” and “Glass & Steel™” in all our businesses. We have made a strategic decision to reduce capital investments in 2024 and return to more normalized levels beginning in the 2025 year. Our ability to support multiple organic and inorganic growth opportunities may be limited by our liquidity resources. How and when we deploy our balance sheet capacity will figure prominently in our longer-term growth prospects and stockholder returns. To support multiple simultaneous growth opportunities, we may need to raise additional capital or incur additional debt to fund our future operations or investment opportunities. We cannot provide any assurances that we will be able to secure additional funding from public or private offerings on terms acceptable to us, if at all. If we are unable to obtain the requisite amount of financing, we may have to forgo opportunities to strategically grow our business.

Regulatory Risks

Regulatory changes may impose restrictions that adversely affect us or cause us to incur significant unplanned costs in modifying our business plans or operations.

We are subject to US federal, state, and local regulations and foreign government regulations, all of which are subject to change. As new laws and regulations are issued or discontinued, we may be required to materially modify our business plans or operations. We cannot be certain that we can do so in a cost-effective or timely manner. The interpretation and implementation of the various provisions of the Communications Act and the FCC rules implementing the Communications Act continue to be heavily debated and may have a material adverse effect on our business.

FCC regulatory activity has increased in 2023 and 2024, particularly in connection with broadband.  We cannot predict how increased regulatory activity at the FCC will impact our businesses.  

Our international operations are subject to similar regulations, the interpretation and implementation of which are also often debated, and which may have a material adverse effect on our business. For instance, in 2020, the Government of Guyana formally implemented telecommunications legislation that introduces material changes to many features of Guyana’s existing telecommunications regulatory regime that impact our operations, administrative reporting and services. There can be no assurance that these regulations will be effectively or uniformly administered and Guyana remains a high-risk environment due to economic, political, and judicial uncertainty.

Our interpretations of our obligations in the United States and our international jurisdictions may differ from those of regulatory authorities. Both federal and state regulators, as well as international regulators, require us to pay various fees and assessments, file periodic reports and comply with various rules regarding our consumer marketing practices and the contents of our bills, on an on-going basis. If we fail to comply with these requirements, we may be subject to fines or potentially be asked to show cause as to why our licenses to provide service should not be revoked.

The Rural Health Care program in Alaska is being audited by USAC, and we may be subject to forfeiture or fine.

Alaska Communications participates in the Universal Service Administrative Company’s (“USAC”) Rural Health Care universal service fund (“USF”) program and received inquiries and requests for information from USAC, which

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administers the program, in connection with both current funding requests and, beginning with a letter dated June 2, 2017 from USAC’s auditors, prior period support payments. After Alaska Communications responded to the initial request for information about support payments prior to 2017, USAC’s auditors asked Alaska Communications to comment on some preliminary audit findings, and it responded with a letter dated December 21, 2018. On February 24, 2020, Alaska Communications received a draft audit report from USAC that alleges violations of the FCC’s rules for establishing rural rates and urban rates, the provisioning and billing of ineligible services and products, and violations of the FCC’s competitive bidding rules.

Alaska Communications also received a Letter of Inquiry on March 18, 2018, from the FCC Enforcement Bureau requesting historical information regarding its participation in the FCC’s Rural Health Care program. In response, Alaska Communications produced voluminous records throughout 2018 and into the first quarter of 2019. On November 5, 2019 and January 22, 2021 Alaska Communications received additional letters from the FCC Enforcement Bureau requesting additional information, to which it responded. To date, Alaska Communications has been working with the FCC Enforcement Bureau to provide it the information it is seeking, and has engaged in discussions with respect to the investigation.

Similar audits and investigations of other companies have resulted in the FCC recouping certain previously awarded support funds, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, results of operations, and liquidity. Any adverse outcome with respect to the FCC Enforcement Bureau’s inquiry may have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations, or liquidity.

The loss of certain licenses could adversely affect our ability to provide wireless and broadband services.

In the United States, wireless licenses generally are valid for 10 years from the effective date of the license, and generally may be renewed for additional 10-year periods by filing renewal applications with the FCC. While to date we have successfully renewed our licenses in the ordinary course of operations, failure to file for renewal of these licenses or failure to meet any licensing requirements could lead to a denial of the renewal application and thus adversely affect our ability to continue to provide service in that license area.

In our international markets, telecommunications licenses are typically issued and regulated by the applicable telecommunications ministry. The application and renewal process for these licenses may be lengthy, require us to expend substantial renewal fees, and/or be subject to regulatory or legislative uncertainty, such as we are experiencing in Guyana, as described above. Failure to comply with these regulatory requirements may have an adverse effect on our licenses or operations and could result in sanctions, fines or other penalties.

Economic Risks

Availability and cost of capital.

The tightening of access to capital markets (both debt and equity) and increasing costs of capital combined with a squeeze on operating cashflow generation capability due to inflationary pressures could decrease our capital funding below a desirable level. This could impact needed future capital projects, or the speed that we are able to complete them, and/or limit our ability to grow through inorganic acquisition opportunities, which could have an adverse impact on our business.

General economic factors, such as inflation and a potential economic downturn, domestically and internationally, may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our operations and performance depend on worldwide economic conditions. These conditions have been adversely impacted by continued global economic concerns over inflation, supply chain disruptions, a potential recession, outbreak of war and other monetary and financial uncertainties. Continued inflation may adversely affect our liquidity, business, financial condition and results of operations by increasing our overall cost structure. The existence of inflation

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in the economy has resulted in, and may continue to result in, higher interest rates and capital costs, supply shortages, increased costs of labor, components, manufacturing and shipping, as well as weakening exchange rates and other similar effects. Increased interest rates and additional debt have resulted in increased interest expenses.

Slower economic activity, increased unemployment, concerns about inflation, decreased consumer confidence and other adverse business conditions could have an impact on our businesses. For example, among other things:

the economies of Alaska and Guyana depend heavily on the strength of the natural resource industries, particularly oil production and prices of crude oil. The supply and price of crude oil can be volatile and influenced by a myriad of factors beyond our control, including foreign actors (like OPEC), worldwide supply and demand, war, economic sanctions, natural disasters, the move by many governments, businesses, and institutions towards “de-carbonization” and other political conditions. Overall economic impacts from a sustained lower price of crude oil, on Alaska on the one hand, and from projected revenue from sales of oil, for Guyana on the other hand, if maintained over time, will impact our growth in the future;
a decrease in tourism could negatively affect revenues and growth opportunities from operations in the islands and in a number of areas covered by US rural and wholesale wireless operations that serve tourist destinations; and
an increase in credit losses on trade receivables, or the amounts that we have to write-off of our accounts receivable, could result from our inability to collect subscription fees from our subscribers.

The long-term impact, if any, that these events might have on us and our business is uncertain.

Our debt instruments include restrictive and financial covenants that limit our operating flexibility.

The credit facilities that we and our subsidiaries maintain include certain financial and other covenants that, among other things, restrict our ability to take specific actions, even if we believe such actions are in our best interest. These include restrictions on our ability to do the following:

incur additional debt;
create liens or negative pledges with respect to our assets;
pay dividends or distributions on, or redeem or repurchase, our capital stock;
make investments, loans or advances or other forms of payments;
issue, sell or allow distributions on capital stock of specified subsidiaries;
enter into transactions with affiliates; or
merge, consolidate or sell our assets.

Any failure to comply with the restrictions of the credit facilities or any subsequent financing agreements may result in an event of default. Such default may allow our creditors to accelerate the repayment of the related debt and may result in the acceleration of the repayment of any other debt to which a cross-acceleration or cross-default provision applies. In addition, these creditors may be able to terminate any commitments they had made to provide us with further funds.

As we have taken on more debt in the last three years to fund our planned higher-than-normal capital expenditures, the additional debt coupled with higher interest rates has increased our interest rate burden.

Labor costs and the terms of collective bargaining agreements can negatively impact our ability to remain competitive, which could cause our financial performance to suffer.

Our four largest markets all have some unionized labor pools. Alaska Communications presents a particular operating challenge that differs from those that we have in other markets given the remote location of operations and the extent of the unionized workforce. Labor costs are a significant component of Alaska Communications’ expenses and, as

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of December 31, 2023, nearly 60% of its workforce is represented by the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers (“IBEW”). The collective bargaining agreement (“CBA”) between Alaska Communications and the IBEW, which was extended through mid-2025, governs the terms and conditions of employment for all IBEW represented employees working for Alaska Communications and has significant economic impacts on it as the CBA relates to wage and benefit costs and work rules. We believe Alaska Communications’ labor costs are higher than our competitors who employ a non-unionized workforce because Alaska Communications is required by the CBA to contribute to the IBEW Health and Welfare Trust and the Alaska Electrical Pension Fund (“AEPF”) for benefit programs, including defined benefit pension plans and health benefit plans, that are not reflective of the competitive marketplace. Furthermore, work rules under the existing agreement limit Alaska Communications’ ability to efficiently manage its workforce and make the incremental cost of work performed outside normal work hours high. In addition, Alaska Communications may make strategic and operational decisions that require the consent of the IBEW. In all of our markets, the local union may not provide consent when needed to execute upon strategic new initiatives or cost saving measures, it may require additional wages, benefits or that other consideration be paid in return for its consent, or it may call for a work stoppage against our operating companies. Any deterioration in the relationship with our local unions could have a negative impact on our operations and on our ability to achieve our plans for growth.

Alaska Communications may incur substantial and unexpected liabilities arising out of its pension plans.

Alaska Communications is required by the CBA to contribute to the AEPF for benefit programs, including defined benefit pension plans and health benefit plans. Alaska Communications also maintains pension benefits for substantially all of its Alaska-based employees. The AEPF is a multi-employer pension plan to which Alaska Communications makes fixed, per employee, contributions through the CBA, which covers the IBEW represented workforce, and a special agreement, which covers most of its non-represented workforce. Because contribution requirements are fixed, Alaska Communications cannot easily adjust annual plan contributions to address its own financial circumstances. Currently, this plan is not fully funded, which means Alaska Communications may be subject to increased contribution obligations, penalties, and ultimately, it could incur a contingent withdrawal liability should it choose to withdraw from the AEPF for economic reasons.  Alaska Communications’ contingent withdrawal liability is an amount based on its pro-rata share among AEPF participants of the value of the funding shortfall. This contingent liability becomes due and payable if Alaska Communications terminates its participation in the AEPF. Moreover, if another participant in the AEPF goes bankrupt, Alaska Communications would become liable for a pro-rata share of the bankrupt participant’s vested, but unpaid, liability for accrued benefits for that participant’s employees. This could result in a substantial unexpected contribution requirement and making such a contribution could have a material adverse effect on Alaska Communications’ cash position and other financial results. These sources of potential liability are difficult to predict.

These plans and activities have generated and will likely continue to generate substantial cash requirements for Alaska Communications, and these requirements may increase beyond our expectations in future years based on changing market conditions, which could result in substantial liabilities on our balance sheet. The difference between projected plan obligations and assets, or the funded status of the plans, is a significant factor in determining the net periodic benefit costs of these pension plans and the ongoing funding requirements of those plans. Changes in interest rates, mortality rates, health care costs, early retirement rates, returns on investment and the market value of plan assets can affect the funded status of our defined benefit pension plans and cause volatility in the net periodic benefit cost and future funding requirements of the plans. In the future, we may be required to make additional contributions to our defined benefit plans. Plan liabilities may impair our liquidity, have an unfavorable impact on our ability to obtain financing and place us at a competitive disadvantage compared to some of our competitors who do not have such liabilities and cash requirements.

Although we believe that we are in compliance with the requirements of the AEPF, given the complexity of pension-related matters described above we may not, in every instance, be in full compliance with applicable requirements.

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Other Risks

Our founder is our largest stockholder and could exert significant influence over us.

Cornelius B. Prior, Jr., our founder and the father of our Executive Chairman, together with related entities, affiliates and family members (including our Executive Chairman), beneficially owns approximately 33% of our outstanding Common Stock. As a result, he has the ability to exert significant influence over all matters presented to our stockholders for approval, including the election and removal of our directors and change of control transactions. His interests may not always coincide with the interests of other holders of our Common Stock.

Low trading volume of our stock may limit our stockholders’ ability to sell shares and/or result in lower sale prices.

For the three months prior to March 15, 2024, the average daily trading volume of our Common Stock was approximately 94,000 shares. As a result, our stockholders may have difficulty selling a large number of shares of our Common Stock in the manner or at a price that might be attainable if our Common Stock were more actively traded. In addition, the market price of our Common Stock may not be reflective of its underlying value.

We may not pay dividends in the future.

Our stockholders may receive dividends out of legally available funds if, and when, they are declared by our Board of Directors. We have consistently paid quarterly dividends in the past, but may cease to do so or decrease the dividend amount at any time. Our credit facility sets certain limitations on our ability to pay dividends on, or repurchase, our capital stock. We may incur additional indebtedness in the future that may further restrict our ability to declare and pay dividends. We may also be restricted from paying dividends in the future due to restrictions imposed by applicable state laws, our financial condition and results of operations, capital requirements, management’s assessment of future capital needs and other factors considered by our Board of Directors.

The lack of liquidity of our privately held investments may adversely affect our business.

Our subsidiaries and affiliates are typically private companies whose securities are not traded in any public market. In the past, we have partnered with other equity investors as well, and may have majority or minority holdings in certain investments. Investment agreements for both our majority and minority held subsidiaries often contain investor rights and obligations, such as rights of first refusal, co-sale, and “drag along” provisions related to liquidity events and transfers that may force us to sell or exit our holdings at times or on terms that are not optimal or limit our ability to sell or exit our holdings when we would like to. The illiquidity of our investments may make it difficult for us to quickly obtain cash equal to the value at which we record our investments if the need arises to satisfy the repurchase of such investments from our other equity investors in the event such company desires, or in the case of our Alaska Transaction and Sacred Wind Transaction, may be required to repurchase such securities pursuant to contractual arrangements. Such illiquidity could also cause us to miss other investment opportunities. There can also be no assurance that our investments will appreciate in value or that it will have the opportunity to divest such investments at acceptable prices or within the timeline envisaged. If any of the above circumstances arise, it could result in impairments to such investments, and could have a material adverse impact on our earnings, cash flow and financial condition.

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.

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ITEM 1C. CYBERSECURITY

Cybersecurity Risk Management and Strategy

We have invested time and resources with a goal to define, implement and further develop the maturity of our cybersecurity risk management and strategy program. During this time, we have developed a common cybersecurity incident response plan across our businesses and jurisdictions that while unique to the risk profile of each business, allows us to utilize common response and decision-making protocols in an effort to react quickly to a potential cybersecurity threat and manage risk to our overall Company.

In developing our cybersecurity incident response plan and assessing the maturity of our cybersecurity threat program, we utilize the National Institute of Standards and Technology Cybersecurity Framework (NIST).  We use NIST as a guide to help us identify, assess, and manage cybersecurity risks relevant to our business. We make it a practice to continually review the maturity of our program, utilizing the NIST standards and leveraging the feedback of both external advisors and third party threat intelligence tools in an effort to continuously improve our program in relation to evolving cybersecurity threats in our industry.

Our cybersecurity risk management program is integrated into our overall enterprise risk management program overseen by our Risk Council, composed of professionals across a variety of departments and jurisdictions in our organization. Our cybersecurity program utilizes methodologies, reporting channels and governance processes across our subsidiaries that apply across the enterprise risk management program to other legal, compliance, strategic, operational, and financial risk areas that are assessed and reviewed when onboarding new vendors, customers, product lines or shifts in our service delivery models.

Our cybersecurity risk management program includes:

risk assessments performed internally and with the help of third party vendors that are designed to help identify material cybersecurity risks to our critical systems, information, products, services, equipment, and our broader enterprise IT and customer-facing network environments;
a security team principally responsible for managing (1) our cybersecurity risk assessment processes, (2) our security controls, (3) our response to cybersecurity incidents, and (4) our assessment of new products and business processes;
the use of external service providers, where appropriate, to assess, test or otherwise assist with the analysis of our security controls and those of our key vendors;
cybersecurity awareness training of our employees, incident response personnel, and senior management; and
a cybersecurity incident response plan that includes procedures for responding to cybersecurity incidents.

To date, we have not experienced  any prior cybersecurity incidents that have materially affected our operations, business strategy, results of operations, or financial condition. For a discussion of risks that could in the future impact our operations, business strategy or financial condition, please see “Cybersecurity breaches could have an adverse effect on our business” in our Risk Factors.

Cybersecurity Governance

Our Board considers cybersecurity risk as part of its risk oversight function and has delegated to the Audit Committee oversight of cybersecurity in connection with its general risk assessment and oversight. The Audit Committee oversees management’s implementation of our cybersecurity risk management program.

The Committee receives frequent, and typically no less than quarterly reports from management on our cybersecurity risks, assessment of our cybersecurity program, and development of our information security incident response plan. In addition, management updates the Committee, pursuant to an agreed upon timetable and escalation

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matrix regarding any material cybersecurity incidents, as well as providing the Committee with periodic reports on any incidents with lesser impact potential.

The Committee reports to the full Board regarding its activities, including those related to cybersecurity. The full Board also receives briefings from management from time to time on our cyber risk management program.  Board members receive presentations and training on cybersecurity topics from our Chief Information Officer (CIO), Vice President of Architecture and Security, or external experts as part of the Board’s continuing education on topics that impact public companies. Our CIO is an experienced information technology professional with just under 30 years of experience in the networking and communications industries. His extensive experience extends to all facets of information technology, including enterprise applications, cloud and SaaS systems, network infrastructure, and network management. For the past decade, he has been at the forefront of cloud security through partnerships with leading identity and access management providers and other leading security technology providers. He is a certified Sarbanes-Oxley-trained professional. Our VP of Architecture and Security has over 30 years of experience in IT and Security and has the Certified Information System Security Professional (CISSP) certification as well as various technology vendor certifications.

As referenced above, our Risk Council is responsible for day-to-day cyber risk management, and reports to the Audit Committee on these matters. Our management team, including our General Counsel, who serves as the lead of our Risk Council, and our CIO are responsible for assessing and managing our material risks from cybersecurity threats. The team has primary responsibility for our overall cybersecurity risk management program and supervises both our internal cybersecurity personnel and our retained external cybersecurity consultants. Our internal security team is made up of experienced professionals that have an average of 27 years of IT and security experience, including certifications such as CISSP and CCSP from ISC2.  We also have developed an internal training program to develop new talent within our organization and work with vendor and third-party training programs to mentor and educate these team members to expand and enhance the capabilities of our team.

Our management team supervises efforts to prevent, detect, mitigate, and remediate cybersecurity threats and incidents through various means, which may include briefings from internal security personnel; threat intelligence and other information obtained from governmental, public or private sources, including external consultants engaged by us; and alerts and reports produced by security tools deployed in the IT environment.

ITEM 2. PROPERTIES

We lease approximately 21,000 square feet of office space at 500 Cummings Center, Beverly, MA 01915 for our corporate headquarters. Worldwide, we utilize the following approximate square footage of space for our operations:

    

    

    

International

Corporate

Type of space

Telecom

US Telecom

and Other

Office

 

329,000

220,000

47,000

Retail stores

 

48,000

30,000

Technical operations

 

2,023,000

297,000

All of the above locations are leased except for certain of the office and technical spaces within our International Telecom segment, which we own. As of December 31, 2023, we operated seven retail stores in our US Telecom segment and twenty retail stores in our International Telecom segment.

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Our offices and technical operations are in the following locations:

International Telecom

US Telecom

Georgetown, Guyana

 

Little Rock, AR

 

Bermuda

 

Castle Rock, CO

 

US Virgin Islands

 

Atlanta, GA

 

Cayman Islands

Anchorage, AK

Albuquerque, NM

Within our communications operations, we globally own approximately 390 towers, lease an additional approximate 385 towers and have 6 switch locations within rented locations. We consider our owned and leased properties to be suitable and adequate for our business operations.

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

We and our subsidiaries are subject to certain regulatory and legal proceedings and other claims arising in the ordinary course of business, some of which involve claims for damages and taxes that are substantial in amount. Historically, our subsidiary, GTT, has been subject to other long-standing litigation proceedings and disputes in Guyana that have not yet been resolved. We believe that, except for the items discussed below, for which we are currently unable to predict the final outcome, the disposition of matters currently pending will not have a material adverse effect on our financial position or results of operations.

Beginning in 2006, the National Frequency Management Unit (now the Telecommunications Agency, or the “NFMU/TA”) and GTT have been engaged in discussions regarding the amount of and methodology for calculation of spectrum fees payable by GTT in Guyana. Since that time, GTT has made payments of undisputed spectrum fees as amounts invoiced by the NFMU/TA. There have been limited further discussions on the subject of a revised spectrum fee methodology with the Telecommunications Agency and GTT awaits the determination of such fees.

GTT has filed several lawsuits in the High Court of Guyana asserting that, despite its denials, Digicel is engaged in international bypass in violation of GTT’s exclusive license rights, the interconnection agreement between the parties, and the laws of Guyana. Digicel filed counterclaims alleging that GTT has violated the terms of the interconnection agreement and Guyana laws. These suits, filed in 2010 and 2012, have been consolidated, however, we cannot accurately predict at this time when the consolidated suit will reach a court of final determination.

GTT is also involved in several legal claims regarding its tax filings with the Guyana Revenue Authority (the “GRA”) dating back to 1991 regarding the deductibility of intercompany advisory fees as well as other tax assessments. GTT’s position has been upheld by various High Court rulings with respect to all outstanding matters. Several High Court rulings in the favor of GTT have been appealed by the GRA and we believe that some adverse outcome in these or pending unheard matters could occur.

In February 2020, our subsidiary, Alaska Communications, received a draft audit report from USAC in connection with USAC’s inquiry into Alaska Communications’ funding requests under the Rural Health Care Support Program for certain customers for the time period of July 2012 through June 2017. The draft audit report alleges violations of the FCC’s rules for establishing rural rates and urban rates, the provisioning and billing of ineligible services and products, and violations of the FCC’s competitive bidding rules.  Alaska Communications has provided USAC with extensive comments in response to its draft audit report seeking correction of numerous factual and legal errors that it believed it had identified. As a result of these conversations and comments being submitted by Alaska Communications, USAC’s auditors may revise their findings, including the amounts they recommend USAC seek to recover. USAC’s auditors are expected to issue a final audit report incorporating Alaska Communications’ responses that will be sent to USAC’s Rural Health Care Division to review and determine if corrective action would be appropriate. In the event that we disagree with USAC’s final audit report, we can appeal that decision to USAC’s Rural Health Care Division and/or the

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FCC. At this time, we cannot predict the contents or timing of the final USAC audit report, the outcome of the audit or the impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations, or liquidity. 

Alaska Communications also received a Letter of Inquiry on March 18, 2018, and subsequent follow up information requests, from the FCC Enforcement Bureau requesting historical information regarding Alaska Communications’ participation in the FCC’s Rural Health Care Support Program.  We are engaged in discussions with the FCC’s Enforcement Bureau and will continue to work constructively to provide it the information it is seeking.  Any adverse outcome with respect to the FCC Enforcement Bureau’s inquiry may have an adverse impact our business, financial condition, results of operations, or liquidity.

With respect to all of the foregoing matters, we believe that some adverse outcome is probable and have accordingly accrued $16.3 million as of December 31, 2023 for these and other potential liabilities arising in various claims, legal actions and regulatory proceedings arising in the ordinary course of business. We also face contingencies that are reasonably possible to occur that cannot currently be estimated. It is our policy to expense costs associated with loss contingencies, including any related legal fees, as they are incurred.

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not Applicable.

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INFORMATION ABOUT OUR EXECUTIVE OFFICERS

The following table sets forth information regarding our executive officers as of March 15, 2024:

Name

    

Age

    

Position

Brad W. Martin

 

48

 

Chief Executive Officer and Director

Justin D. Benincasa

 

61

 

Chief Financial Officer

Mary Mabey

 

42

 

Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary

Justin Leon

38

Senior Vice President, Corporate Development

Executive Officers

Brad W. Martin is our Chief Executive Officer and a member of our Board of Directors. Prior to being named our CEO and Director in 2024, Mr. Martin served as our Chief Operating Officer from 2018 to 2023. Prior to joining us in 2018, he served as Chief Operating Officer for Senet Inc., a leading “low power wide area network” (LPWAN) operator and global service provider. From 2013 through 2015, Mr. Martin served as Senior Vice President and Chief Quality Officer with Extreme Networks, a global leader in software-driven networking solutions for Enterprise and Service Provider customers. Between 2008 and 2013, he served as Vice President of Engineering Operations and Quality with Siemens Enterprise Communications and Enterasys Networks, delivering voice and data networking hardware and software solutions to global enterprises. Mr. Martin holds a Bachelor of Science, Mechanical Engineering from the University of Maine, is a published author and featured industry speaker.

Justin D. Benincasa is our Chief Financial Officer. Prior to joining us in May 2006, Mr. Benincasa was a Principal at Windover Development, LLC since 2004. From 1998 to 2004, he was Executive Vice President of Finance and Administration at American Tower Corporation, a leading wireless and broadcast communications infrastructure company, where he managed finance and accounting, treasury, IT, tax, lease administration and property management. Prior to that, he was Vice President and Corporate Controller at American Radio Systems Corporation and held accounting and finance positions at American Cablesystems Corporation. Mr. Benincasa holds an M.B.A. degree from Bentley University and a B.A. degree from the University of Massachusetts. Mr. Benincasa intends to retire on or around March 17, 2024.

Mary Mabey is our Senior Vice President and General Counsel. Ms. Mabey joined us in 2009 and previously served as our Deputy General Counsel. Prior to joining us, Ms. Mabey was with the law firm of Edwards Angell Palmer & Dodge LLP (now Locke Lord LLP) in Boston, where she advised public and private companies in domestic and international transactions on corporate and securities law matters, merger, acquisition and financing transactions, corporate governance, and other general corporate matters. Ms. Mabey received a B.A. degree from the University of Notre Dame and a J.D. degree from the University of Texas School of Law.

Justin Leon is our Senior Vice President of Corporate Development. Mr. Leon joined the Company in 2015 and brings over fifteen years of investing experience to the team. Prior to joining ATN, Mr. Leon worked in Corporate Strategy & Development for Nuance Communications, a publicly traded software company focused on speech recognition and machine learning where he executed over $1 billion in acquisitions in the healthcare, mobile, and enterprise software verticals. Mr. Leon started his career at Stonebridge Associates, a boutique investment bank in Boston advising clients in technology, medical device, and consumer products verticals. Mr. Leon earned a degree in corporate finance from Bentley College and an M.B.A from the Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth.

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PART II

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Our Common Stock, $.01 par value, is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “ATNI.” The number of holders of record of Common Stock as of March 15, 2024 was 80.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities in the Fourth Quarter of 2023

On December 14, 2023, the Company’s Board of Directors authorized the repurchase of up to $25.0 million of its Common Stock, from time to time, on the open market or in privately negotiated transactions (the “2023 Repurchase Plan”). The 2023 Repurchase Plan replaced the previously approved 2016 Repurchase Plan and, as of December 31, 2023, had all $25.0 million available to repurchase the Company’s Common Stock.

The following table reflects the repurchases by the Company of its Common Stock during the quarter ended December 31, 2023:

    

    

    

    

(d)

Maximum

Number (or

(c)

Approximate

(b)

Total Number of

Dollar Value) of

(a)

Average

Shares Purchased

Shares that May

Total Number

Price

as Part of Publicly

be Purchased

of Shares

Paid per

Announced Plans

Under the Plans or

Period

Purchased

Share

or Programs

Programs

October 1, 2023 — October 31, 2023

 

100,659

$

32.98

$

4,451,527

November 1, 2023 — November 30, 2023

 

4,451,527

December 1, 2023 — December 31, 2023

 

25,000,000

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Stock Performance Graph

The graph below matches ATN International's cumulative 5-Year total shareholder return on common stock with the cumulative total returns of the Russell 2000 index, the S&P SmallCap 600 index, the Nasdaq. Telecommunications index, and the Nasdaq Small Cap Telecommunications Services index. The graph tracks the performance of a $100 investment in our common stock and in each index (with the reinvestment of all dividends) from 12/31/2018 to 12/31/2023.

Graphic

Graphic

The stock price performance included in this graph is not necessarily indicative of future stock price performance

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ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Overview

We are a leading provider of digital infrastructure and communications services with a focus on rural and remote markets in the United States, and internationally, including Bermuda and the Caribbean region.

We have developed significant operational expertise and resources that we use to augment our capabilities in our local markets. With this support, our operating subsidiaries are able to improve their quality of service with greater economies of scale and expertise than would typically be available in the size markets we operate in. We provide management, technical, financial, regulatory, and marketing services to our operating subsidiaries and typically receive a management fee calculated as a percentage of their revenues, which is eliminated in consolidation. We also actively evaluate investment opportunities and other strategic transactions, both domestic and international, and generally look for those that we believe fit our profile of telecommunications businesses and have the potential to complement our “First-to-Fiber” and “Glass & Steel™” approach in markets while keeping a focus on generating excess operating cash flows over extended periods of time. We use the cash generated from our operations to maintain an appropriate ratio of debt and cash on hand and to re-invest in organic growth, to fund capital expenditures, to return cash to our stockholders through dividends or stock repurchases, and make strategic investments or acquisitions.

For further information about our financial segments and geographical information about our operating revenues and assets, see Notes 1 and 14 to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Report.

As of December 31, 2023, we offered the following types of services to our customers:

Mobile Telecommunications Services. We offer mobile communications services over our wireless networks and related equipment (such as handsets) to both business and consumer customers.

Fixed Telecommunications Services. We provide fixed data and voice telecommunications services to business and consumer customers. These services include consumer broadband and high-speed data solutions for businesses. For some markets, fixed services also include video services and revenue derived from support under certain government programs.

Carrier Telecommunication Services.  We deliver services to other telecommunications providers including the leasing of critical network infrastructure such as tower and transport facilities, wholesale roaming and long distance voice services, site maintenance and international long-distance services.

Managed Services. We provide information technology services such as network, application, infrastructure and hosting services to both our business and consumer customers to complement our fixed services in our existing markets.

Through December 31, 2023, we identified two operating segments to manage and review our operations and to facilitate investor presentations of our results. These operating segments are as follows:

International Telecom. In our international markets, we offer fixed services, mobility services, carrier services and managed services to customers in Bermuda, the Cayman Islands, Guyana and the US Virgin Islands.

US Telecom. In the United States, we offer fixed services, carrier services, and managed services to business customers and consumers in Alaska and the western United States. As of December 31, 2023 we provided mobility services to retail customers in the western United States.

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The following chart summarizes the operating activities of our principal subsidiaries, the segments in which we reported our revenue and the markets we served during 2023:

International Telecom

US Telecom

Services

   

Markets

Tradenames

Services

   

Markets

Tradenames

Mobility Services

Bermuda, Guyana, US Virgin Islands

One, GTT, Viya

Mobility Services

 

United States (rural markets)

Choice, Choice NTUA Wireless

Fixed Services

Bermuda, Cayman Islands, Guyana, US Virgin Islands

One, Logic, GTT, Viya

Fixed Services

United States

Alaska Communications, Commnet, Choice, Choice NTUA Wireless, Sacred Wind Communications, Ethos, Deploycom

Carrier Services

Bermuda, Guyana, US Virgin Islands

One, GTT, Viya

Carrier Services

United States

Alaska Communications, Commnet, Essextel, Sacred Wind Communications

Managed Services

Bermuda, Cayman Islands, US Virgin Islands, Guyana

Fireminds, One, Logic, GTT, Viya, Brava

Managed Services

 

United States

Alaska Communications, Choice

Acquisition of Sacred Wind Enterprises

On November 7, 2022, we, via our wholly owned subsidiary Alloy, Inc. (“Alloy”), acquired all of the issued and outstanding stock of Sacred Wind Enterprises, Inc. (“Sacred Wind”), a rural telecommunications provider in New Mexico (the “Sacred Wind Transaction”) for $44.6 million of consideration. The purchase price allocation was finalized during the year ended December 31, 2023. As part of the Sacred Wind Transaction, we transferred consideration of $16.7 million of cash, net of $9.4 million of cash acquired, $14.8 million of redeemable noncontrolling interests, and $3.7 million of contingent consideration. During the year ended December 31, 2023, we received $1.3 million as final settlement of working capital amounts. We funded the acquisition with borrowing under our CoBank Credit Facility and assumed $31.6 million of Sacred Wind debt, to the United States of America administered through the Rural Utilities Service. Upon completion of the Sacred Wind Transaction, the former Sacred Wind shareholders own 6% of the Alloy equity. This equity is classified as redeemable noncontrolling interests in our financial statements because the holders have an option, beginning in 2026, to put the equity interest to a subsidiary of the Company at the then fair market value. The redeemable noncontrolling interests do not have preference relative to other equity units and participate in gains and losses of Alloy. The contingent consideration is earned based on certain operating metrics of Sacred Wind beginning in 2025 through 2027. During the year ended December 31, 2023, Sacred Wind made substantial progress toward achieving the relevant operating metrics and, as a result, the contingent consideration increased by $4.2 million to $7.9 million. Such increase in the contingent consideration is included in Loss on Disposition of Assets and Contingent Consideration on our Consolidated Income Statement. The fair value of the contingent consideration is calculated using discounted cash flow analysis based on a range of probability weighted outcomes.

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FirstNet Agreement

In July 2019, we entered into a Network Build and Maintenance Agreement with AT&T Mobility, LLC (“AT&T”) that we subsequently amended through December 31, 2023 (the “FirstNet Agreement”). In connection with the FirstNet Agreement, we are building a portion of AT&T’s network for the First Responder Network Authority (“FirstNet”) in or near our current operating areas in the western United States. Pursuant to the FirstNet Agreement and subject to certain limitations contained therein, all cell sites must be completed and accepted within a specified period of time. We expect that total construction revenue related to FirstNet will approximate $80 million to $85 million. Since the inception of the project through December 31, 2023, we have recorded $73.2 million in construction revenue, including $10.6 million during 2023. In 2024, we expect to record additional construction revenue and related costs as sites are completed. Revenues from construction are expected to have minimal impact on operating income. We expect to substantially complete the build by the end of 2024 with the remainder to be completed in early 2025.

Following acceptance of a cell site, AT&T will own the cell site and we will assign to AT&T any third-party tower lease applicable to such cell site. If the cell site is located on a communications tower we own, AT&T will pay us pursuant to a separate lease agreement for an initial term of eight years. In addition to building the network, we will provide ongoing equipment and site maintenance and high-capacity transport to and from these cell sites for an initial term ending in 2031.

AT&T will continue to use our wholesale domestic mobility network for roaming services at a fixed rate per site during the construction period until such time as the cell site is transferred to AT&T. Thereafter, revenue from the maintenance, leasing and transport services provided to AT&T is expected to generally offset revenue from wholesale mobility roaming services. We are currently receiving revenue from the FirstNet Agreement and expect overall operating income contributions from the FirstNet Agreement to have a relatively steady impact going forward.

Verizon Carrier Managed Services Agreement

On May 10, 2023, our subsidiary, Commnet, entered into a  Carrier Managed Services Master Agreement (the “Agreement”) with Cellco Partnership d/b/a Verizon Wireless (“Verizon”), pursuant to which Commnet will provide a variety of network, infrastructure and technical services that will help deliver next generation wireless services to Verizon’s subscribers in Commnet’s current operating area in the western United States.

Pursuant to the Agreement and subject to certain limitations contained therein, Commnet will upgrade its wireless service in specific areas and provide services to Verizon for an initial seven year term (the “Commitment Period”).  The Commitment Period will automatically renew for up to two additional three year periods, unless Verizon provides no less than twelve months’ notice on non-renewal prior to the expiration of the then-current term.

In connection with the Agreement, Commnet has also agreed to provide Verizon with high capacity transport in its coverage area. Verizon will continue to use Commnet’s wireless communications network for roaming services at a fixed rate per site during the build period until such time as upgrades to the network to meet certain performance service level agreements for both RAN operations and transport are met. Verizon will pay Commnet an aggregate of approximately $200 million for services over the term of the Agreement.

The Agreement may be terminated at any time upon the mutual written consent of Commnet and Verizon.  In addition, Verizon may terminate the Agreement upon the occurrence of certain events, including failure to meet certain milestones or completion dates with respect to network coverage, failure to meet certain SLAs with respect to the ongoing services, the declaration of a bankruptcy event by Commnet and breach of any other material terms of the Agreement.

Universal Service Fund and Connect America Fund Phase II Programs

We recognize revenue from several government funded programs including the USF, a subsidy program managed by the Federal Communications Commission (“FCC”), the Alaska Universal Service Fund (“AUSF”), a similar program

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managed by the Regulatory Commission of Alaska (the “RCA”), and the Emergency Connectivity Fund (“ECF”), a program to help schools and libraries support remote learning in underserved communities. USF funds are disbursed to telecommunication providers through four programs: the High Cost Program; the Low Income Program (“Lifeline Program”); the Schools and Libraries Program (“E-Rate Program”); and the Rural Health Care Support Program.  

We also recognize revenue from the Connect America Fund Phase II program (“CAF II”) which offers subsidies to carriers to expand broadband coverage in designated areas. Under CAF II, our US Telecom segment will receive an aggregate of $27.7 million annually through December 2025 and an aggregate of $8.0 million annually from January 2026 through July 2028.

All of the programs are subject to certain operational and reporting compliance requirements. We believe we are in compliance with these requirements as of December 31, 2023.

In 2018, the FCC initiated a proceeding to replace the High Cost Program support received by Viya in the US Virgin Islands with a new Connect USVI Fund. On November 16, 2020, the FCC announced that Viya was not the recipient of the Connect USVI Fund award and authorized funding to be issued to the new awardee in September 2021. Pursuant to the terms of the program and effective in July 2021, Viya’s annual USF support was reduced from $16.4 million to $10.9 million. In July 2022, this support was reduced again to $5.5 million for the annual period through June 2023. In April of 2023, the FCC issued an order extending the high cost support in the US Virgin Islands at the current $5.5 million per year received from July 2023 through December 31, 2025.  In connection with this order, the FCC requires that we maintain our current footprint for voice and broadband services in the US Virgin Islands.

RDOF (“Rural Digital Opportunities Fund”)

We expect to receive approximately $22.7 million over 10 years to provide broadband and voice coverage to over 10,000 households in the United States (not including Alaska) under the 2020 Rural Digital Opportunity Fund Phase I Auction (“RDOF”). During the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, we recorded $2.4 million and $2.0 million of revenue from the RDOF program, respectively.

Construction Grants

We have also been awarded construction grants to build network connectivity for eligible communities. The funding of these grants, used to reimburse us for our construction costs, is generally distributed upon completion of a project. Completion deadlines begin in 2024 and once these projects are constructed, we are obligated to provide service to the participants. We expect to meet all requirements associated with these grants, with the exception of grants we have transferred to third parties, as described below.  A roll forward of our grant awards is below (in thousands).

Amount

Grants awarded, December 31, 2022

$

80,197

New grants

34,526

Construction complete

(8,305)

Transferred grants

(6,269)

Grants awarded, December 31, 2023

$

100,149

During the year ended December 31, 2023, we disbursed capital expenditures of $17.4 million under these programs and received reimbursement of $14.6 million.  These cash flows are classified as investing activities in our statement of cash flows.

In addition, we partner with tribal governments to obtain grants under various government grant programs including, but not limited to, the Tribal Broadband Connectivity Program ("TBCP") and the Rural Development Broadband ReConnect Program (“ReConnect”).  These programs are administered by United States government agencies

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to deploy broadband connectivity in certain underserved areas.  We were identified as a sub recipient of grants under these programs totaling $192.6 million as of December 31, 2023.

Replace and Remove Program

On July 15, 2022, we were notified that we were an approved participant in the Federal Communication Commission’s Secure and Trusted Communications Networks Reimbursement Program (the “Replace and Remove Program”), designed to reimburse providers of communications services for reasonable costs incurred in the required removal, replacement, and disposal of covered communications equipment or services, that have been deemed to pose a national security risk, from their networks. Pursuant to the Replace and Remove Program, we were allocated up to approximately $207 million in reimbursement amounts to cover documented and approved costs to remove and securely destroy all prohibited communications equipment and services in our U.S. networks and replace such equipment. The Replace and Remove Program requires that we complete the project no later than one year from submitting our initial reimbursement request, or by July 2024. At this time, we anticipate that we will be able to meet the deadlines and requirements of the program. We have incurred capital expenditures of $17.5 million related to this project, of which $15.7 million were incurred in 2023. At December 31, 2023, $31.8 million of capital expenditures were accrued and we have a receivable of $47.3 million, including operation costs and capital expenditures, which is expected to be reimbursed within the next twelve months. During the year ended December 31, 2023 we have received $17.1 million of reimbursement under the program, of which $4.3 million was classified as operating cash inflows and $12.8 million was classified as investing cash inflows in our statement of cash flows.

Discussion of Results of Operations for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022 compared to December 31, 2021

A discussion regarding our results of operations for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022 compared to 2021 can be found under Item 7 of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022, filed with the SEC on March 16, 2023, which is available on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov and our Investor Relations website at https://.ir.atni.com under the “Financials & Filings” section.

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Selected Segment Financial Information

The following represents selected segment information for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 (in thousands):

For the Year Ended December 31, 2023

    

    

    

    

International

US

Corporate and

Telecom

Telecom

Other (1)

Consolidated

Revenue

Communication Services

Mobility - Business

$

16,333

$

527

$

$

16,860

Mobility - Consumer

92,153

3,510

95,663

Total Mobility

108,486

4,037

112,523

Fixed - Business

71,215

143,322

214,537

Fixed - Consumer

167,953

90,283

258,236

Total Fixed

 

239,168

 

233,605

 

 

472,773

Carrier Services

14,686

128,195

142,881

Other

 

3,066

 

3,839

 

 

6,905

Total Communication Services Revenue

365,406

369,676

735,082

Construction

10,629

10,629

Other

Managed Services

5,327

11,178

16,505

Total Other Revenue

5,327

11,178

16,505

Total Revenue

370,733

391,483

762,216

Operating income (loss)

 

53,420

 

(5,522)

 

(34,723)

 

13,175

For the Year Ended December 31, 2022

    

    

    

    

International

US

Corporate and

Telecom

Telecom

Other (1)

Consolidated

Revenue

Communication Services

Mobility - Business

$

14,830

$

1,228

$

$

16,058

Mobility - Consumer

87,601

6,359

93,960

Total Mobility

102,431

7,587

110,018

Fixed - Business

69,903

126,735

196,638

Fixed - Consumer

163,408

78,338

241,746

Total Fixed

 

233,311

 

205,073